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Tasks:

1. Answer the questions:

1)How many people were awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences this year?

2)Who is the first woman to win the prize in economics? Does she specialize in economics?

Where does she come from?

3)Why was she awarded the prize?

4)Why is the classical free-market theory considered to be too simplistic nowadays?

5)What kind of relations do people who make business contract have?

6)What view does Ms Ostrom challenge?

7)What does she base her conclusions on?

8)Who was the second scientist to win the prize in economics? Where does he come from?

9)What does his research show?

10)Whom was the economics prize created by?

2. Insert the prepositions where it is necessary:

1)The Nobel Memorial Prize … Economic Science was awarded Monday … two social scientists … their work … demonstrating that business people, including competitors, often develop … implicit relationships that supplement and resolve … problems that arise … free-market competition.

2)Economics has been too isolated, and these awards are a sign …the greater enlightenment going ….today.

3)…. the minds …many mainstream economists the credit crisis and the severe recession have highlighted … the shortcomings … an unregulated market-place.

4)Economic actors, left … their own devices, act … their own self-interest.

5)The theory ignored the unstated relationships and behaviors that develop … companies and … companies that compete.

6)Common understanding develops even … competitors when they are dealing … each other.

7)Based … numerous studies … user-managed fish stocks, pastures, woods, lakes and groundwater basins, Ms Ostrom concludes that the outcomes are, more often … not, better … predicted … standard theories.

8)The economics prize was created …1969 … the Swedish central bank … honor … Alfred Nobel, the inventor … dynamite, who established … the awards … achievements …some field.

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3. Match the words in column a) with their synonyms in column b):

a)to prevail; departure; including; competitor; to supplement; to resolve; to arise; to cite; governance; boundaries; background; to merge; enlightenment; to be stuck on; to derail; recession; mainstream; highlight; shortcoming; unregulated; enhance; trust; to challenge; conventional; outcome; predict; suited for; establish

b)free; dominate; result; education; rival; common; deviation; management; improve; comprising; fit for; foresee; defect; to add; customary; to originate; bounds; to emphasize; chief direction; to refer to; to settle; decline; to dispute; expertise; to unite; to set up; to be crazy about; to lead to; confidence

4.Match the word combinations with their English equivalents in the text:

В отход от общепринятой экономической теории; включая конкурентов; подспудно развивать отношения; возникать из рыночной конкуренции; управление экономикой; полномочия фирм; завоевать награду; специализация в; соединение общественных дисциплин; более просвещенный взгляд на ситуацию; зациклиться на эффективности рынка; ограничивать мышление; острый экономический спад; улучшать всеобщее благосостояние; слишком примитивный; подспудные отношения; вести деловые контакты; государственная собственность; угодья, находящиеся в руках тех, кто работает на них; решение конфликтов; в честь; достижения в деле борьбы за мир

5.Translate from Russian into English:

1)В отход от общепринятой экономической теории, Нобелевская премия в области экономики была присуждена в этом году двум ученым, занимающимся общественными дисциплинами.

2)Ученым удалось доказать, что между различными предпринимателями — даже в условиях конкуренции — часто устанавливаются подспудные отношения, которые способствуют развитию бизнеса и помогают справиться с проблемами, возникающими при конкуренции свободного рынка.

3)Принимая решение о присуждении премии, нобелевский комитет учитывал кризис в банковской системе и условия экономического упадка, которые по мнению многих видных ученыхэкономистов выявили недостатки нерегулируемого рынка, участники которого действуют в собственных интересах.

4)Когда люди заводят деловые контакты — даже если они и конкуренты — они не могут рассчитать все до мелочей, поэтому им

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приходится в какой-то мере опираться на честность партнеров

и доверять им.

5)Когда рыночная конкуренция ограничена, фирмы решают спорные проблемы эффективнее чем рынок.

Var. II

Text

Customs sta compensation

Staff compensation is a crucial factor in HR management. It should be su ciently high to attract and retain sta with necessary qualifications to start work at customs. However, overall sta salaries are often inadequate and the di erence between the compensation of management and lower level sta is much narrower than what prevails in the private sector. While compensation is not the only motivating factor for doing a good job, it certainly ranks high. Developing esprit de corps and pride in the o ce are complementary motivators that are often not su ciently emphasized.

In most cases customs does not have much flexibility in setting salary levels and must adhere to the civil service pay scale. Frequently, fiscal stringency has caused this pay scale to lag substantially behind the prevailing pay scale for equally qualified sta in the private sector. This situation discourages sta and often leads them to seek out facilitation money. It is not unusual for the most valuable sta members to leave the service, often to use their acquired knowledge to work as brokers. Inside knowledge of the customs service and familiarity with customs sta can both facilitate trade formalities for their customers, and potentially undermine integrity. The integrity risk has led some countries to prevent customs sta from providing customs brokerage services for several years after ending employment with customs.

A partial solution to the salary scale rigidities is to provide bonuses to sta . While many customs services pay bonuses, only a few pay them in a way that enhances e ectiveness and e ciency. To do so, bonuses must be large enough to begin to bridge the gap between what private sector workers earn (discounted for the job security in the public sector), and satisfy a number of stringent criteria. Bonuses must have internal and external legitimacy, and be objective,

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transparent, and easy to administer. In addition, they should be SMART, that is, Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Timed.

Internal legitimacy requires that customs sta perceive the bonus system to be distributed justly, without favoritism, with transparency, and with possibilities to appeal. External legitimacy refers to the acceptability of the bonuses outside customs, a requirement for allocating the necessary budget resources that pay for these bonuses. In the absence of either internal or external legitimacy, the bonus system will not be sustainable.

An alternative to providing substantial bonuses would be to put revenue sta on a higher pay scale than the rest of the civil service, in light of the crucial importance that resource mobilization plays in running the government. Better pay would also protect customs sta somewhat against the temptations of accepting bribes from traders. A higher pay scale would need to be combined with overall customs reforms that provide guarantees of enhanced e ectiveness and e ciency.

Tasks:

1. Answer the questions:

1)What is a crucial factor in HR management?

2)Why do customs officers feel discouraged and seek out facilitation money?

3)How does sta use their acquired knowledge?

4)How do customs administrations in some countries cope with the situation of sta turnover?

5)How can bonuses prevent sta from leaving the public service?

6)Why should bonuses have internal legitimacy?

7)What does external legitimacy refer to?

2. Insert the prepositions where it is necessary:

1)…most cases customs does not have much flexibility … setting salary levels and must adhere … the civil service pay scale.

2)Fiscal stringency has caused the current pay scale to lag substantially … the prevailing pay scale … equally qualified sta … the private sector.

3)The integrity risk has led some countries to prevent customs sta ….providing customs brokerage services … several years …. ending employment … customs.

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4)A partial solution … the salary scale rigidities is to provide bonuses … sta .

5)Internal legitimacy requires that customs sta perceive the bonus system to be distributed justly, … favoritism, … transparency, and … possibilities to appeal.

6)External legitimacy refers … the acceptability … the bonuses … customs, a requirement … allocating the necessary budget resources that pay … these bonuses.

7)An alternative … providing substantial bonuses would be to put revenue sta … a higher pay scale than the rest … the civil service, … light … the crucial importance that resource mobilization plays … running the government.

8)Better pay would also protect customs sta somewhat … the temptations … accepting bribes … traders.

3. Match the words in column a) with their synonyms in column b):

a)crucial; su ciently; to retain; to prevail; to rank; esprit de corps; complementary; to emphasize; flexibility; to adhere; stringency; to discourage; facilitation; to undermine; integrity; to enhance; legitimacy; transparent; to administer; to allocate

b)to allot; to stick to; team spirit; lawfulness; to hold; significant; to dissuade; honesty; enough; to improve; to rate; to weaken; open; to triumph; to dispense; compliance; aid; additional; to accent; strictness

4.Match the word combinations with their English equivalents in the text:

Важный фактор; управление персоналом; необходимые навыки; зарплата в целом; стимулирующее средство; цениться высоко; чувство солидарности; устанавливать уровень зарплаты; ограниченность финансовых средств; существенно отставать; дополнительные деньги; подвергать испытанию честность; маклерство; частичное решение; жесткая шкала в зарплате; внутренняя и внешняя законность; объективны и открыты; возместить разницу; существенные вознаграждения; конкретные и умеренные; жизнеспособная система; соблазн брать взятки; усовершенствованная эффективность.

5.Translate from Russian into English:

1)Как правило, зарплата работников таможни недостаточно высока и разница между оплатой труда менеджера и обычных работников гораздо меньше, чем в частном секторе.

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2)Пока еще недостаточно ценится та роль, которую играют честь мундира и профессиональная гордость в привлечении нового персонала.

3)Недостаток финансовых средств приводит к тому, что работники одной и той же квалификации в государственном и частном секторе получают разные зарплаты.

4)Знание системы работы таможни изнутри и знакомство с персоналом таможни может помочь работнику частного сектора ускорить таможенное оформление груза или багажа потенциального клиента, а это часто сопряжено с подделкой документов.

5)Бонусы должны иметь внутреннюю и внешнюю законность и быть объективными, прозрачными и простыми в распределении.

Контрольная работа № 4.

Var. I

China Races by Japan to become No. 2 global economy

China has roughly the same land as the United States, but it is burdened with a fifth of the world’s population and insu cient resources.

Its per capita income is more on a par with those of impoverished countries like Algeria, El Salvador and Albania — which, along with China, are close to $3,600 — than that of the United States, where it is about $46,000.

Yet there is little disputing that under the direction of the Communist Party, China has begun to reshape the way the global economy functions by virtue of its growing dominance of trade, its huge hoard of foreign exchange reserves and U.S. government debt, and its voracious appetite for oil, coal, iron ore and other natural resources.

China is already a major driver of global growth. The country’s leaders have grown more confident on the international stage and have begun to assert greater influence in Asia, Africa and Latin America, with things like special trade agreements and multibilliondollar resource deals.

“They’re exerting a lot of influence on the global economy and becoming dominant in Asia”, said Edwar S. Prasad, a professor of trade policy at Cornell University in New York. “A lot of other econ-

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omies in the region are essentially riding on China’s coattails, and this is remarkable for an economy with a low per capita income.”

In Japan, the mood was one of resignation. Though increasingly eclipsed by Beijing on the world stage, Japan has benefited from a booming China, initially from businesses moving production there to take advantage of lower wages and, as local incomes have risen, from tapping a large and increasingly lucrative market for Japan goods.

Beijing is also beginning to shape global dialogues on a range of issues, analysts said. Last year, for instance, it asserted that the dollar should be phased out as the world’s primary reserve currency.

And while the United States and the European Union are struggling to grow after the worst economic crisis in decades, China has continued to gain by investing heavily in infrastructure and backing a stimulus plan worth 4 trillion renminbi, or $588 billion.

“This is just the beginning”, said Wang Tao, an economist at UBS in Beijing. “China is still a developing country. So it has a lot of room to grow. And China has the biggest impact on commodity prices in Russia, India, Australia and Latin America.”

There are huge challenges ahead, though. Economists say that China’s economy depends too heavily on exports and investment and that it needs to encourage greater domestic consumption, something China has struggled to do.

State-run banks in the country have recently been criticized for lending too aggressively in the last year while shifting some loans o their balance sheets to disguise lending and evade rules meant to curtail the supply of credit.

The country also faces huge environmental challenges that could undermine its expansion.

China is also locked in a fierce debate over its currency policy, with the United States, European Union and others accusing Beijing of keeping the renminbi artificially low to bolster exports, leading to huge trade surpluses for China but major bilateral trade deficits for the United States and the European Union.

Regardless, China’s rapid growth suggests that it will continue to compete fiercely with the United States and Europe for natural resources, while also o ering great opportunities for companies eager to tap its market.

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Tasks:

I.Insert the prepositions where it is necessary:

1)China is burdened … a fifth … the world’s population and insu cient resources.

2)… the direction of the Communist Party China has begun to reshape the way the global economy functions … virtue … its growing dominance … trade.

3)China is exerting a lot … influence … the global economy.

4)Japan has benefited … a booming China, initially … businesses moving production there to take advantage … lower wages and … tapping a large and increasingly lucrative market … Japan goods.

5)China has asserted that the dollar should be phased … as the world’s primary reserve currency.

6)The United States, European Union and others accuse Beijing … keeping the renminbi artificially low to bolster exports, leading … huge trade surpluses … China but major bilateral trade deficits … the United States and the European Union.

II. Match the words in column a) with their synonyms in column b):

a)roughly; dispute; voracious; to assert; to eclipse; to boom; impact; challenge; to evade; to curtail; to undermine

b)to destroy; di cult problem; influence; debate; to maintain; to avoid; to outshine; to grow; greedy; approximately; to reduce

III.Match the word combinations with their English equivalents from the text:

Быть обремененным чем-то; бедные страны; растущее господство; волчий аппетит; движущая сила мирового масштаба; оказывать влияние на; миллиардные сделки; вытеснена с мировой арены; воспользоваться более низкой зарплатой; прибыльный рынок; внутреннее потребление; валютная политика; активный торговый баланс; наравне с; на душу населения; пойти в гору благодаря связям.

IV. Translate the sentences from Russian into English:

1)Япония, хотя и чувствует себя вытесненной с мировой арены, выиграла от растущей экономики Китая тем, что многие японцы завели в Китае свой бизнес, пользуясь тем, что заработные платы там ниже.

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2)Следует согласиться, что Китай утвердился себя в роли мирового лидера не только в экономике, но и в политике.

3)Китай оказывает огромное влияние на развитие мировой экономики благодаря своему господству в торговле, огромным запасам иностранной валюты и долгу правительства США.

4)В то время как США и многие европейские страны пытаются выйти из экономического кризиса, экономика Китая продолжает набирать темп роста, превращаясь в движущую силу мирового масштаба.

5)Китай уже оказывает огромное влияние на цены на товары во многих странах Азии.

Var. II

Tangled triangle of Russia, China and the U.S.

The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks marked the beginning of the end of the U.S. global domination. The U.S. fall from the stars was accelerated by its unsuccessful, taxing military campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq and the deep economic crisis.

By 2009, it became obvious that the “Pax Americana” global empire was a pipe dream, and the United States — now under the leadership of a more pragmatic and realistic President Barack Obama — began looking for new alliances. One of the Obama administration’s ideas was sharing the burden of responsibility for global security with China, whose economy continued to grow at full speed during the global crisis.

In February 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton proposed creating a U.S.-Chinese superpower alliance to collectively solve the most pressing global economic and political problems. But the Chinese leadership flatly rejected Clinton’s proposal. How could China possibly create an “axis” with the United States when both are locked in a fierce geopolitical rivalry and are unable to overcome thorns in the bilateral relationship such as the sale of U.S. weapons to Taiwan?

Even if these problems didn’t exist, a long-term U.S.-Chinese or Russian-Chinese alliance would be di cult to achieve. For one, after being burned by the failed alliances with Washington and Moscow, Beijing has vowed to avoid formal alliances with a superpower; this

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has become a cornerstone of China’s foreign policy. Second, China has historically vowed to “fight against hegemony”. China has always insisted that it has no ambitions to become a hegemony and is opposed to any global domination by any superpower.

China learned its lesson in the early 1980s when, after cozying up to the United States to oppose the Soviet Union, it quickly realized the downside of this alliance — that it had a negative impact on China’s reputation in the Third World, which was China’s traditional basis of support and which shared Beijing’s opposition to U.S. hegemony.

Thus, Washington must come up with another way to preserve its dominant position in global a airs. If China doesn’t want to play ball, it could mean that it is intent on decreasing U.S. political and economic influence when and where it can. This is why many U.S. policy-makers view China as the country’s largest threat.

How can the United States counter this threat? In part, with Russia’s help. And so, once again, Washington has courted Moscow to help the United States counterbalance China’s growing global influence. But the United States doesn’t realize that Russia has no interest in alienating China. Moscow is more interested in cooperating with Beijing than counterbalancing it, particularly when Russia’s primary goal is modernization.

Eighteenth century French philosopher Charles de Montesquieu said, “Small countries perish from external enemies, and large countries perish from internal ones”. Russia has more than enough internal problems that it needs to solve without having to worry about conflicts with China.

Tasks:

I.Insert the prepositions where it is necessary:

1)After September 11, 2009, the United States ….the leadership … a more pragmatic and realistic President Barack Obama began looking … new alliances.

2)One … the Obama administration’s ideas was sharing the burden … responsibility … global security … China.

3)It seems that both the USA and China are locked … a fierce geopolitical rivalry and are unable to overcome thorns … the bilateral relationship such … the sale … U.S. weapons … Taiwan.

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