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12. Переведите с английского на русский:

1)Some people think that by free education for all one may solve all the problems of society

2)We should find means to provide all qualified sta with jobs.

3)Manual labor ought not be thought dirty or shameful.

4)We must discuss this issue in detail.

5)Every scientist must check the results of his research.

6)The car needs washing.

7)We must do as we are told.

8)The talker should remember that conservation must serve some purpose.

9)We frequently have to use reference books where we can find information we need at the moment.

10)We need not read the textbook from cover to cover.

11)To achieve progress in any subject we must discuss things.

12)It should be borne in mind that some people are afraid of having time to think, so they watch television, because they can think of nothing better to do.

13)When we are introduced to new people we should try to appear friendly.

14)Some parents think that children must be seen, not heard

15)You may wait for him if you like.

16)Might I make a suggestion?

17)What you say might be true. However we want evidence!

18)He looks sad. He must have some problems.

19)This must be the book you want.

20)This must be a mistake. I am not Professor Brown, I am Professor Gray.

21)He shall finish the work he has begun!

22)I see you are having some problems with the text. Shall I help you with it?

23)We have lost all our money. What shall we do now?

24)You shall have an answer by tomorrow.

25)You should observe all these rules!

26)Increased use of electricity may help with the problem of growing transport.

27)It seems clear that we must consider new requirements as soon as we can.

28)Many scientists think that we ought to think about solar energy.

29)The Government should do something to stop inflation.

30)We should reconsider our decision on the matter.

13. Переведите на русский язык:

1)He must have known the answer long before anyone of us.

2)He must be telling lies. Nothing of this kind has happened.

101

3)They look bored. The secretary must have been keeping them waiting for a long time.

4)They must be having a hot discussion in the next room. They are making so much noise that I can’t concentrate on my work.

5)He has changed his mind. He must have noticed that we don’t share his opinion.

6)There is light in their windows. John must be still working.

7)The audience is applauding. His speech must have made a strong impression.

8)He couldn’t have broken his promise.

9)Could he have deceived us?

10)They may not have relied on his help.

14. Переведите на английский:

1)Возможно, он сейчас в университете.

2)Вероятно, он был в университете утром.

3)Они, видимо, уже догадались, что он мало понимает в этом деле.

4)Он, должно быть, вышел.

5)Им не следовало заключать контракт с этими подрядчиками.

6)Тебе незачем было спрашивать об этом. Ты и так знаешь, как я к тебе отношусь.

7)Мне пришлось прочесть массу книг, когда я готовилась к докладу.

8)Вы, наверное, видели этот памятник, когда были в Амстердаме.

9)Не может быть, чтобы вы не слышали об этом.

10)Она, возможно, звонила, но меня вчера не было дома.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Выражения, используемые с глаголами say, tell, ask:

Say

Tell

Ask

Say good morning/ evening

Tell the truth;

Ask a favour;

etc.;

tell a lie;

ask the time;

say something;

tell (sb) the time;

ask a question;

say one’s prayers;

tell sb one’s name;

ask the price

say a few words;

tell a story;

 

say so;

tell a secret;

 

say no more;

tell sb the way;

 

say for certain, etc

tell one from another;

 

 

tell sb’s fortune;

 

 

tell sb so,

 

 

tell the di erence

 

1. Заполните пропуски глаголами say, tell или ask:

1)First the new boss ... good morning.

2)I was so shocked I didn't know what to ...

3)It's not always easy to ... the truth.

4)Can you ... me the way to the police station?

5)Now you can ... questions.

6)I can't ... you the secret. It's not mine.

7)You can't ... for certain what decision they will come to.

8)Can I ... you a favour?

Present

“I study hard”, he

Past Simple

He said (that) he

Simple

said

 

studied hard.

Present

“I am studying

Past Con-

He said (that) he was

Continuous

hard”, he said.

tinuous

studying hard.

Present

“I have studied

Past Perfect

He said (that) he had

Perfect

hard”, he said.

 

studied hard.

Present

“I have been study-

Past Perfect

He said (that) he had

Perfect

ing hard”, he said

Continuous

been studying hard.

Continuous

 

 

 

Past Simple

“I studied hard”,

Past Perfect

He said (that) he had

 

he said

 

studied hard.

Future forms

“I will study hard”,

Future in the

He said (that) he

(will, shall)

he said

Past (Would)

would study hard.

103

Am, Is, Are

“I am going to

(was, were)

He said (that) he was

going to

study hard”, he

going to

going to study hard.

 

said.

 

 

Can (способ-

“I can study

Could,

He said (that) he

ность)

harder”, he said.

Would Be

could study harder.

 

 

Able to

 

Can (вероят-

“I can do it tomor-

Would be

He said (that) he

ность)

row”, he said.

able to

would be able to do it

 

 

 

the next day.

May

“I may study

Might,

He said (that) he

 

harder”, he said.

Could

might study harder.

Must (дол-

“I must study

Had to

He said (that) he had

женствова-

harder”, he said.

 

to study harder.

ние)

 

 

 

Must (веро-

“He must be study-

Must

She said (that) he

ятность)

ing now”, she said.

 

must be studying .

Am, Is, Are

“I am to study

Was, Were

He said (that) he was

 

hard”, he said.

 

to study hard.

Do (в вопр.

Do you study

Past Simple

She asked him if he

oпускается)

hard enough?”,

 

studied hard enough.

 

she said.

 

 

Shall (asking

“How shall I do

Should

He asked how he

for advice)

it?” he asked.

 

should do it.

Needn’t

“I needn’t study

Didn’t need/

He said (that) he

 

hard”, he said.

Didn’t have

didn’t need(have) to

 

 

to

study hard.

Команды,

Study hard!” she

To Infinitive

She urged him to

приказы,

said to him.

 

study hard.

просьбы

 

 

 

 

Don’t waste your

Not to Infini-

She urged him not to

 

time away!” she

tive

waste his time away.

 

said

 

 

Глагол гово-

+

-Ing form

She insisted on him/

рения

 

 

his studying hard.

This / These

“He’s been study-

That / those

She said (that) he had

 

ing hard these

 

been studying hard

 

days”, she said

 

those days.

104

Here

“Put the paper over

There

She told him to put

 

here”, she said.

 

the paper over there.

Tonight

“I’m seeing her

That night

She said (that) she

 

tonight” she said

 

was seeing her that

 

 

 

night.

Today

“I haven’t seen her

That day

She said (that) she

 

today”, she said.

 

hadn’t seen her that

 

 

 

day.

This week /

“I’ve written three

That week /

He said (that) he had

month / year

essays this week”,

month / year

written three essays

 

he said.

 

that week.

Now

“He is studying

Then, at

She said (that) he was

 

now”, she said.

that time,

studying at that time.

 

 

at once, im-

 

 

 

mediately

 

Now that

Now that he is a

Since

She said (that) he had

 

student he has to

 

to study hard since he

 

study hard”, she

 

was a student.

 

said.

 

 

Yesterday

He missed a class

The Day

She said (that) he had

 

yesterday.

Before

missed a class the day

 

 

 

before.

Last week/

“He stayed up late

The previous

She said (that) he

night/ month/

last night”, she

week/ night/

had stayed up late the

year

said

month/ year

previous night.

Tomorrow

“I will see you to-

The following

He said (that) he

 

morrow”, he said.

day/ the day

would see me the day

 

 

after

after.

Next week /

“We won’t see

The fol-

She said (that) we

month/ year

each other next

lowing/

wouldn’t see each

 

week”, she said.

next week/

other the next week.

 

 

month/ year

 

Two days /

“I saw her two days

Two days/

He said (that) he had

months/ years

ago” he said.

months/

seen her two days

ago

 

years before

before.

Примечания:

1.В косвенной речи кавычки убираются.

2.That можно ставить, а можно не ставить в утвердительном предложении.

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3.Если? глагол, вводящий косвенную речь в прошедшей форме, все остальные глагольные формы меняются на формы прошедшего времени тоже. Это правило называется согласованием времен. Однако, формы глагола не меняются, если:

a) глагол говорения? в формах настоящего, будущего или в форме Present Perfect Tense.

б) высказывание выражает общие истины, постоянные явления или события в) если то, что сообщает говорящий, актуально и в момент высказывания

г) если предложение является сложноподчиненным с придаточным времени д) если предложение в прямой речи в сослагательном на-

клонении (Типы 2, 3) или предложение содержит фразу “I/ We/ They wish, she/ he wishes” f) а также глаголы “would, could, used to, mustn’t, should, might, ought to, had better”

4.Past Perfect и Past Continuous не меняются в косвенной речи.

5.Если говорящий говорит о том, что считается правдой, глагольные формы могут изменяться или не меняться. Если говорящий считает цитируемое высказывание неправдоподобным, времена меняются согласно правилу согласования времен.

6.В косвенной речи в вопросах порядок слов ничем не отличается от порядка слов в утвердительном предложении. Вспомогательные глаголы do/does и did в Present Simple и Past Simple в вопросах не используются.

1. Перепишите следующие предложения в прошедшем времени:

1)My uncle says he has just come back from France.

2)He says he has never met them before.

3)She says the situation is getting better.

4)They say the meeting was held in Madrid.

5)The manager says he is going to cut our salaries.

6)Our partners promise they will deliver the goods on time.

7)The reporters say the blue-collar workers have been on strike for three days.

106

2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требующемся времени:

1)I didn't know that you already (to read) this article.

2)She asked me whether I (to remember) the background of the story.

3)She said she (to commit) the crime.

4)The immigration o cials say the number of illegal immigrants (to jump) in the 1990s.

5)The employer said that guest workers (work) twice as hard.

6)The President said that illegal immigrants (to be) a growing presence nationwide.

7)The delegates were told that the speaker just (to go) out and (to be) back in a minute or two.

8)I asked the lecturer whether he (to think) the facts (to be) true.

9)The policeman asked the man where he (to run) so late.

10)He understood that the soldiers (to arrest) him.

3. Выберите подходящее слово:

1)She said she will come/ would come back next year.

2)He said he had gone/ has gone out the previous night.

3)She said she is looking/ would be looking forward to the party the following weekend.

4)We wonder/ wondered what time the lecture started.

5)They realized they had made/ made a huge mistake.

6)I can only help you if you say/tell me the problem.

7)The doctor said/ told: “You'd better stay in bed for two days.”

8)He won't be punished if he says/ tells what happened.

9)He says he works/worked for the company two years ago.

4. Передайте следующие предложения в косвенной речи:

1)“I can explain the situation to you”, said the man.

2)The manager said to his assistant: “We shall discuss the subject tomorrow”.

3)“You have not been performing well lately”, said the boss to me.

4)The poor man said to the rich man: “My horse is wild. It can kill your horse”.

5)The rich man said to the judge: “This man's horse has killed my horse.”

6)“I'm going to Spain next week”, he said.

7)“You can come to me if you have any problems”, she said to us.

8)“Water freezes below 0 degrees C”, he said.

9)“I've applied for several jobs this week”, the man said.

10)“China is a densely populated country”, she said.

107

5.Передайте следующие повелительные предложения в косвенной речи:

1)“Explain to me how to solve this problem”, said the spokesman.

2)“Bring me a cup of co ee”, said Mr Bell to his secretary.

3)“Give me your answer tomorrow”, said our business partner to us.

4)“Show me your passport”, said the customs o cer to me.

5)“Come to the o ce at 9.00 tomorrow”, said the manger to her.

6)“Show me your suitcase”, said the customs o cer to the passenger.

7)“Give us a 50% discount”, said the Buyer.

8)“Send your fax as soon as possible”, said the president of the corporation.

9)“Promise you'll sell this equipment at a lower price”, said the manager to us.

10)“Get down to work!” ordered the teacher.

6. Передайте следующие вопросы в косвенной речи:

1)I asked Mr Bell: “Did anybody meet you at the station?”

2)The reporter asked the government o cial: “Why did The Prime-Min- ister have to submit his resignation?”

3)The student asked the professor: “How many countries are the in UN?”

4)The manager asked me: “What can cause the delay in delivery?”

5)The employee asked the manager: “"How do you deal with correspondence in the o ce?”

6)The customer asked the sales man: “Where can I find the footwear section?”

7)The colleague asked me: “What types of reports are used at your job?”

8)The customs o cer asked the passenger:” Do you have anything to declare?”

9)The clerk asked the traveler: “What kind of accommodation do you prefer?”

10)The policeman asked the suspect: “Where were you last night?”

7. Переведите с русского на английский, используя косвенную речь:

1)Мой друг сказал: «Не шуми! Идет экзамен».

2)Менеджер сказал нам: «Я оставил бумаги в конференц-зале. Не могли бы вы принести их мне?»

3)Пассажир сказал: «Это вещи предназначены для моего личного пользования».

4)Газеты сообщают, что вчера вечером в Узбекистан прибыл Министр Обороны США.

108

5)В заявлении говорится, что в ходе переговоров особое внимание было уделено правам человека.

6)Ученые считают, что катастрофы можно избежать.

7)Секретарь сообщила: «Совещание было отложено».

8)Представитель прокуратуры считает: «Преступник знал убитого бизнесмена».

9)Представители иммиграционных служб считают, что нелегальными иммигрантами должны заниматься правоохранительные органы.

10)Студенты заявили: «Наши жилищные условия — ужасны».

8. Восстановите прямую речь в следующих предложениях:

1)The policeman ordered the driver to step out of the car.

2)The manager reminded the man that his employment would only be temporary.

3)He promised that he would pay as soon as he could.

4)The customs o cer explained that there was no need for the passenger to fill out a declaration if he had nothing to declare.

5)The professor explained that day-to-day activities place a high value on e ective interpersonal communication.

6)The manager recommended us to seek information that would support our decision.

7)The psychologists warn us that anger is often perceived when the source speaks loudly.

8)The policeman explained to the driver that it was illegal to drive at more than 50 km an hour on that stretch of road.

9)The man claimed that he had seen the accident.

10)He informed me that my request was being reviewed.

GERUND

Сочетает в себе свойства глагола и существительного. Глагольные свойства герундия выражаются в том, что герундий имеет залог и видо-временные характеристики, а также иногда требует дополнения (He risked appearing on TV) и может определяться наречием (Excuse my calling you so late).

109

Как и существительное, герундий может:

1)следовать за притяжательным местоимением или существительным (Do you mind my opening the window?)

2)выступать в предложении подлежащим (Smoking is bad for you.)

3)частью сказуемого:

после глаголов “to be, stop, finish, go on, continue, keep on” (His hobby is collecting stamps. He stopped smoking altogether after his last heart attack.)

4)следовать после предлогов (I am not against experimenting at all.)

5)выступать в роли дополнения (He decided to give up doing morning exercises. I can’t get used to being treated like this.)

6)выступать в роли определения (He gave up the idea of becoming an actor.)

7)выступать в роли обстоятельства (всегда с предлогом)

(In doing the work we came across a lot of problems. At hearing her name he turned pale. He proved his arguments by citing several figures.)

FORMS:

Tenses

Active

 

Passive

 

Voice

 

Voice

 

 

 

 

Present

telling

He likes telling

Being told

On being told the

 

 

stories

 

news, she turned

 

 

Он любит

 

pale

 

 

рассказывать

 

Когда ей сообщи-

 

 

истории

 

ли новость, она

 

 

 

 

побледнела

Continuous

__

__

__

 

Perfect

Having

I am proud

Hav-

He was shocked by

 

spoken

of having spoken

ing been

having been spoken

 

 

to him openly

spoken

to in such way.

 

 

Я горжусь тем,

 

Он был шокиро-

 

 

что поговорил

 

ван тем, что с ним

 

 

с ним открыто

 

говорили в таком

 

 

 

 

тоне

Perfect

__

__

__

__

Continuous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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