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Английский язык. Учебник 1 курс

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Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования Московской области

ФИНАНСОВО-ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Учебное пособие для студентов первого курса

Королев 2014

УДК

РЕКОМЕНДОВАНО

ББК

Учебно-методическим советом ФТА

К

Протокол №9 от 01.07.2014

 

Учебная программа и методические материалы

 

рассмотрены и одобрены на заседании

 

кафедры иностранных языков

 

Протокол №11 от 01.06.2014

Рецензент:

- Аввакумова Т.А., профессор кафедры иностранных языков РГУТС, кандидат педагогических наук.

К Красикова, Т.И., Арутюнян, Д.Д. Английский язык

[Текст] / Т.И. Красикова, Д.Д. Арутюнян : учебное пособие для студентов первого курса неязыковых вузов, ФТА, МО г. Королев, Изд-во

«Канцлер», 2014. – 126 с.

Техн.ред.: Черняк Т.В.

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся на первом курсе в неязыковых вузах.

Данное пособие содержит страноведческий материал по Великобритании и США.

Работа с пособием может помочь обучающимся извлекать детальную информацию из текстов, совершенствовать навыки и умения в быстром чтении текстов, совершенствовать умения и навыки в устной речи, а также способствовать развитию письменной речи.

ISBN

©Т.И. Красикова, Д.Д. Арутюнян, 2014

©ФТА, 2014

©Изд-во «Канцлер», 2014

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Данное пособие предназначено для студентов первого курса Фи- нансово-технологической академии и ставит целью совершенствование межкультурной компетенции в речевой деятельности на английском языке на основе материалов страноведческого характера (Великобритании и США).

Пособие состоит из двух частей.

Первая часть пособия состоит из восьми модулей. Каждый модуль имеет четыре раздела, ориентирующие на различные виды чтения, устную и письменную речь.

Инструкции к упражнениям нацеливают студентов на пользование словарем, нахождение основной идеи текста (ознакомительное чтение), детальное понимание текста (изучающее чтение), изложение мыслей на английском языке в устной и письменной форме, обсуждение поставленных вопросов, проведение ролевых игр.

Впервой части также даны комплексы упражнений на грамматический и словообразовательный материал, выполняемых студентами самостоятельно вне аудитории.

Во второй части представлен грамматический материал и словообразовательные модели в схемах и таблицах, а также список слов.

Работа в аудитории предполагает парную и групповую деятельность под руководством преподавателя.

Самостоятельная работа проводится дистанционно под руководством преподавателя.

При написании письменных работ, подготовке к обсуждениям, ролевым играм по заданным темам студентам предлагается использовать дополнительную литературу и ресурсы Интернета.

Для совершенствования грамматических навыков и умений предлагается использование следующих пособий:

My Grammar Lab,

Murphy R., English Grammar in Use,

Macmillan, English Grammar in Context Essential/Intermediate.

Вкачестве внеаудиторного чтения предлагается использование зарубежной литературы с аутентичными текстами для совершенствования навыков и умений в речевой деятельности.

3

PART I

БЛОК I

Грамматика: Indefinite (Present, Past, Future), Continuous (Present, Past, Future).

Словообразование

Тема: English as a World Language.

Раздел 1.1

1.1.1. Отработайте произношение данных слов и слов словосочетаний, уточнив транскрипцию по словарю.

Native speaker

Носитель языка

Trade n

торговля

Numerous adj

многочисленный

Exceed v

Превышать, превосходить

Respect n

Уважение, отношение

In this respect

В этом отношении

Acquire v

получать

Development n

развитие

Mutual aid

взаимопомощь

Literacy n

грамотность

Frequent adj

частый

Establishment n

Учреждение, установление

Above all

Прежде всего

Assist v

Помогать, содействовать

Standing n

Положение, репутация

1.1.2. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на данные вопросы:

-In what countries is English

a)the only official language;

b)one of the existing official languages?

ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE

English has become a world language. In Shakespeare’s time it was a “provincial” language of secondary importance with only six million native speakers. Nowadays English has become the world’s most important lan-

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guage in politics, science, trade and cultural relations. In a number of speakers (400 million) it is second only to Chinese. It is the official language of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, of the United States of America, of Australia and New Zealand. English is used as one of the official languages in Canada, the Republic of South Africa and the Irish Republic. It is also spoken as a second language by many people in India, Pakistan, numerous countries in Africa.

Even more widely English is studied and used as a foreign language. In this respect it acquired an international status. It is used for communication, listening to broadcasts, reading books and newspapers, in commerce and travel. Half of the world’s scientific literature is in English. English is associated with technological and economic development and it is the principal language of international aid. It is the language of automation and computer technology. It is not only the universal language of international aviation, shipping and sport. It is to a considerable degree the universal language of literacy and public communication. It is the major language of diplomacy, and is the most frequently used language both in the debates in the United Nations and in the general conduct of the UN business.

English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century with the first settlements in North America. The English had visited America at different times. But they had never stayed very long. The companies were not successful. In the year 1606, some English people decided they did not like the way their king, James the First, was treating them

.They formed a group, which they called the London Company, and made plans to sail for America. The London Company sent three ships to America.

Above all it is the greatest growth of population in the United States assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that has given the English language its present standing in the world.

1.1.3. Прочитайте текст еще раз. Укажите, какие предложения соответствуют содержанию текста. Подтвердите свои ответы фактами из текста.

1.English has become the world’s language in the course of the last decade.

2.In a number of speakers it is the first language in the world.

3.It is one of the official languages in Canada.

4.English has got an international status because it is widely used as a foreign language.

5.Many people in different countries of Africa speak English as a second language.

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6.One third of the world’s scientific literature is in English.

7.English is the major language of international aid.

8.French is the principal language for the debates in the United Nations.

9.English has become a world language only because it is widely studied as a foreign language.

10.It is used only as a foreign language outside Great Britain.

1.1.4.Ответьте на данные вопросы. Работайте в парах.

1.When did English become a world language?

2.In what spheres is English the world’s most important language?

3.Where is it the only one official language?

4.Where is it used as one of the official languages?

5.Where is English spoken as a second language?

6.In what way is it used more widely?

7.Where is English the major language?

8.What is the reason of English becoming a world language?

1.1.5.Просмотрите текст и найдите фразам, данным в левой колонке (1-8) подходящее завершение в правой колонке (a-h).

1.

In the course

a) scientific literature is in English

2.

A “provincial” language

b) outside England

3.Is spoken as a second

c) of the last few years

language

 

4.

Half of the world’s

d) has given the English language its present

 

 

standing in the world

5.

It is to considerable de-

e) in India, Pakistan and numerous countries in

gree

Africa

6.

As a mother tongue

f) the universal language

7.

The exporting of English

g) began in the seventeenth century

8.

Massive immigration

h) of secondary importance

1.1.6.Сократите текст, опустив несущественные детали.

1.1.7.Составьте план и передайте содержание текста.

1.1.8.Сообщите Вашему собеседнику информацию по данным вопросам.

-What is the role of the English language in your country?

-What other languages are spoken in your country?

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Раздел 1.2

1.2.1. Отработайте произношение данных слов и словосочетаний, уточнив транскрипцию по словарю.

Diversity n

разнообразие

Arrival n

прибытие

Co-existence n

сосуществование

Settle v

поселяться

Eventually adv

Со временем

Shift n

Сдвиг, изменение, перемещение

Numerical adj

Численный, числовой

Substantial adj

Значительный

Significance n

Значение

Ratio n

Отношение, соотношение

Count v

Иметь значение

Lingua franca

Язык межъязыкового общения

Supremacy n

Господство, превосходство

Piecemeal adv

По частям

Maintain v

Поддерживать, сохранять, продолжать

Trek v

Совершать длительный поход, переход

1.2.2. Прочитайте данный текст и дайте ответ на вопрос:

“What is the main idea of the text?”

WHY DOES AMERICA SPEAK ONE LANGUAGE?

America was – and is- a melting-pot of peoples and of languages. But why, given the astonishing diversity of the immigrant arrivals from almost the earliest days, the country did not become a linguistic jigsaw in which none of the pieces would fit together. Why didn’t languages compete in those places, where, for instance, German and English speakers rubbed up against each other? Or what about simple co-existence? And how was it that the isolated groups, for example, the Scandinavian countries who settled in remote Minnesota or Nebraska would eventually make the shift away from their own languages?

The simplest answer is probably the numerical one. By the end of the 18th century there were more than 2 million people of English and Welsh extraction recorded in 16 states. To this must be added a substantial quantity of Scots-Irish.The total of the other principle language speakers – German, Dutch and French in the order of their numerical significance – hardly exceeded 200,000. It was the ratio of English speakers to non-Englsh that counted.

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The new non-English-speaking immigrants contributed much to America, including (sometimes) hundreds of terms from their own languages.The very variety of the immigrant tongues would have helped establish English as the lingua franca. There was no single rival for supremacy, rather a diverse group of (mostly) European languages arriving in piecemeal fashion, each of which brought something to the table but none of which had the desire or capacity to sit at the top place.

Of course, many ethnic and linguistic groups did maintain their identity for a long time after their arrival, as is shown by the existence of well over 100 German-language newspapers in mid-19th-century America or the publication of up to a dozen Yiddish newspapers in 1930s New York. There were isolated groups who preserved their own tongue, as is still the case to an extent with the Amish. But the literal mobility of American society, from the earliest days of the pioneers trekking westward to the age of the freeway, has been a powerful counterforce against the closed community and thus the long-term preservation of any language other than English.

More important than mobility, perhaps, was the aspirational nature of the new society, later to be formalized and glamourized in phrases like the “American Dream”. Success was achievable not so much as a prize for conformity but for adaptation to challenging new conditions, among which would be acquiring enough of the dominant language to get by – before getting ahead.

1.2.3. Прочитайте текст еще раз. Найдите в тексте ответы на данные вопросы. (Работа в парах).

1.What made America the melting pot of languages?

2.What countries contributed to the prevailence of the English language in America?

3.In what way did immigrant tongues exist in America?

4.What did literal mobility result in?

5.What did challenging to new conditions bring to?

6.How can the phrase the “American Dream” be explained??

1.2.4.Выпишитеизтекстаслова, отражающиеосновнуютемутекста.

1.2.5.Составьтеплантекстанаанглийскомязыке.

1.2.6.Напишите небольшое сообщение на английском языке по теме текста.

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Раздел 1.3

1.3.1. Прочитайте текст. Дайте ответ на данный вопрос.

“What are the reasons for learning foreign languages?”

There are very many good reasons to learn other languages. Very little clear, detailed communication can occur between people who don’t have a common language. Learning the languages of others helps in talking to people, reading and writing things, and in understanding the TV and films from other countries, and opens up much a wider range of sources of information.

When traveling and when you want to see the world you can manage a lot better if you understand the signs around you, and if when you meet people and want to ask questions, if you can speak to them in their own language, they’re often a lot more friendly and helpful than if your first question is: “Do you speak English?” If you are working in the field where interesting things are happening abroad, like science, business or medicine, and you want to be up-to-date with progress in that field, you can’t always wait for the latest reports to be translated into your own language, as this often doesn’t happen for some time, especially if you speak a language like Hungarian, where there are only a limited number of translators, who are often expensive, and so only selected information is translated.

It’s very valuable and helpful in learning languages if you start from an early age. Many people can learn the best up to about the age of 20, as they have a lot of time for it which later, with family and work, often isn’t possible. Somebody thinks that learning a language after the age of twenty or so needs a lot of enthusiasm, and more time, as the learning process is generally a little slower for older people than for people with young impressionable minds. After twenty, it’s very difficult to learn more languages if you’ve not already learnt one before, as it’s a special way of learning. It’s not like learning maths or science – instead it involves a different way of thinking. You have to learn to think in another language. This is like music, maybe. You have to learn how to learn another language as well as learning the grammar and vocabulary involved, so if you’ve learnt one extra language already, it’s easier to learn more. I think that for many multilingual people, the second language is a lot easier than the first.

The learning process really starts to work when you feel that it’s important and that you have a reason to learn it – if you can find the language useful, not just part of school curriculum. For example, if you learn English and you are confronted with it on the radio, on TV, and if you listen to music with English words.

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1.3.2.Выберите заголовок, наиболее соответствующий содержанию текста.

1.Learning a Foreign Language

2.The Best Way to Learn a Foreign Language

3.Make Your Learning Easy

4.Don’t Start Learning if You are Over 20

1.3.3.Ролевая игра.

Situation. You are students A, B, C, … from different countries. (Work in pairs.)

Ask your partner the following question:

-How many foreign languges does she /he speak?

-How did she/he manage to learn these languages?

-What other languages is she/he going to study?

-What is the reason of her/his learning any foreign languages?

Раздел 1.4.

1.4.1. Письменно составьте вопросы разного типа из данных слов.

She /is his good friend/?

Is she his good friend?

Whose friend is she?

Who is his good friend?

1. We /are ready/ to start /work/? 2. You /are/ good /at maths/? 3. He /is /very intelligent/? 4. She/ is angry/ with me/? 5. They /are in Europe/ now/? 6. We /are hungry/? 7. She/ is very tired/? 8. He/ is very busy /now/? 9. They/ are thirsty/ after a long walk/? 10. He/ is/ always/ready/to help/his/friends/?

1.4.2. Письменно составьте вопросы разного типа из данных слов.

she /was his good friend/? Was she his good friend? Whose friend was she?

Who was his good friend?

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