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Bologna process

The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords) is to create the European higher education area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe. It is named after the place it was proposed, the University of Bologna with the signing, in 1999, of the Bologna declaration by ministers of education from 29 European countries in the Italian city of Bologna. This was opened up to other countries signatory to the European Cultural Convention of the Council of Europe, and further governmental meetings have been held in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003), Bergen (2005) and London in spring 2007.

Framework

The basic framework adopted is of three cycles of higher education qualification. As outlined in the Bergen Declaration of 2005, the cycles are defined in terms of qualifications and ECTS credits:

1st cycle: typically 180-240 ECTS credits, usually awarding a Bachelor's degree.

2nd cycle: typically 90-120 ECTS credits (a minimum of 60 on 2nd-cycle level), usually awarding a Master's degree.

3rd cycle: Doctoral degree. No ECTS range given.

In most cases, these will take 3, 2, and 3 years respectively to complete. The actual naming of the degrees may vary from country to country.

Goals

With the Bologna process implementation, higher education systems in European countries should be organized in such a way that:

- it is easy to move from one country to the other (within the European Higher Education Area) - for the purpose of further study or employment;

- the attractiveness of European higher education is increased so many people from non-European countries also come to study and/or work in Europe;

- the European Higher Education Area provides Europe with a broad, high quality and advanced knowledge base, and ensures the further development of Europe as a stable, peaceful and tolerant community benefiting from a cutting edge European Research Area;

- there will also be a greater convergence between the U.S. and Europe as European higher education adopts aspects of the American system.

Текст № 7. ХДУ

Kherson State University

Kherson State University is the biggest institution of higher education in Kherson, of the IVth ac­creditation level. Our educational establishment is the oldest in the Southern Ukraine. This year the University is going to celebrate its 90-th anniversary.

It prepares qualified specialists in 36 specialties, professionals in their work. These are teach­ers of all subjects which are taught at school, teachers for preschool child care centers, engineer teachers, lawyers, economists, environmentalists, psychologists, social workers, journalists, transla­tors and others. Such task is accomplished by our tight-knit teaching stuff comprising 56 professors, doctors of sciences; 228 associate professors, candidates of sciences; 105 senior teachers, assistants.

Forty five chairs provide training of students and supervise their scientific activities. Alto­gether there are about 8 thousand of full-time, part-time and external students studying at the Univer­sity, almost 1400 of them annually graduate as diploma professionals with bachelor's, specialist's or master's degree.

Besides the 5 educational buildings the University has a sporting health-improving camp "Burevestnik" on the Black Sea coast, training center on the river Dnieper, botanic garden - agro biological station in the city of Kherson.

1500 students from other cities and towns live in University dormitories. University library with 5 reading-rooms, containing 400000 units of book storage, works all days of week.

One of the principal directions in the University work is preparation and realization of interna­tional projects in the field of science and education.

Today higher education in the whole world is characterized by mutual integration and interna­tionalization of educational process. Integration objectives are brought to the forefront in Bologna Declaration. For this reason the development of international relations belongs to primary aims of Kherson State University.

Cooperation with the foreign partners is realized on substantive directions by means of differ­ent organizational forms - from students and stuff exchanges, to participation in international confer­ences, seminars, "round tables" for realization of joint complex educational projects.

Текст №8. Я студент факультету історії і соціології

I am a student of the Institute of Psychology, Sociology and History. Our institute is one of the largest institutes in the University. We study different subjects: Psychology, Sociology Physiology, Mathematics and many others. Besides these subjects we study Ukrainian, Philosophy and English. We study English to be able to read scientific books on Psychology.

There are many departments in our faculty: of psychology, of sociology, of history etc. Besides them there are research laboratories and museums. Every student has an opportunity to work in modern, well-equipped labora­tories, where different problems of Psychology are under in­vestigation.

Students are acquainted with all branches of Psychology. They are lectured in various subjects of this science.

During the first two years we attend lectures on ma­thematics, political subjects and foreign languages. In the third year more narrow specialization begins. We have several specialized courses and addi­tional practical and research work in the subject they have chosen as their future specialty. Besides attending lectures we may join some scientific circle and choose a problem to work on according to our bents. All of us know that Psychology is the science of glorious past and great future. We do our best to acquire as much knowledge as possible.

Graduates of our institute are assigned to work at laboratories, schools, research institutes. Those who have a bent for research work may apply for a post-graduate course of study.

Текст № 9.

Текст №12. Покупки. Товари продовольчі та промислові.

Shopping

There are some things we have to do every day. Shopping is one of them. Shopping is a part of our daily life. Some people hate it and find it boring. Others consider it very exciting and believe it’s a kind of entertainment. As for me, I'm not a great fan of shopping I understand that I have to deal with it whether I like it or not. When I need something in the way of clothes I go to the department store. There I can buy shoes, hats, knitted goods, household goods and so on. When I want to buy clothes I go to the Ready-Made Clothes departments. Boots and shoes are sold at the Shoe department or the Foot- wear department. To buy socks and stockings we go to the Hosiery department. We can buy buttons, ribbons, lace, tape, thread, needles, pins, handkerchiefs, zippers and such like at the Haberdashery department. To buy cardigans, jumpers, pullovers and knitted underwear we go to the Knitted Goods department. Ladies buy face powder, lipstick, face cream, nail varnish, mascara, shades and such like at the Perfume department. People buy jewellery and gold watches at the jeweler’s. Books are sold at the bookseller's, flowers at the florist's. Newspapers and magazines are often sold at the news-stands or news stalls. If I want to buy some meat I go to the butcher's. At the grocer's flour, sugar, cereals, tea, coffee and other things can be bought. To buy some vegetables and fruit I go to the greengrocer's. Bread, buns, biscuits, cookies are sold at the baker's. If I want to buy some fish I go to the fishmonger's. To buy milk, butter, cheese, eggs we go to the dairy. I prefer to buy food in a supermarket. It is very convenient. I can take a trolley and pile everything I need there.

Види крамниць та відділів (в супермаркеті, в аптеці)

SHOPPING

My friend will have a birthday in a week, so I decided to look for a present for him. I went to the Central Department Store, which is situated in the center of our city. It is a multistoried building where one can get everything in the way of food and manufactured goods. I must confess, it is so difficult to make a suitable purchase at such a huge shop with a lot of counters and shelves. When I arrived at the Central Department Store first I admired the window-dressing. Then I went along the ground floor, where I could see all kinds of foodstuffs: meat, fish, tinned food, sausage, fruit, wine, sweets, etc. I went on with my shopping and noticed that there were on sale: haberdashery, stationery, hosiery, and leather-wear. To tell the truth I found myself in a fantastic city of silk skirts and shirts, different kinds of frocks and coats, leather boots and shoes, woolen pullovers and sweaters, jeans and suits, jackets and blouses. There one can get everything in the way of clothes wanted by men, women and children: footwear, knitwear, ready-made clothes, firs and what not. I admired the cut and the style of a light summer frock and made up my mind to try it on,

A pleasant-looking shop-assistant proposed me to try the frock on and to look in the mirror. But unfortunately, it didn't suit me perfectly; it was a bit loose on me.

On the first floor I could see all kinds of household utensils: crockery, china, electric appliances, pots and pans, vacuum-cleaners, washing-machines, cameras, radio and television sets, video, cassette-recorders and a lot of other things. On the second floor there were the perfumery and gift and souvenir departments.

There was a big choice of different things. The shop-assistant suggested looking at a beautiful water-colour. 1 liked it very much and was sure my friend would like it too. The price of the water-colour wasn't very high, I must admit. So, I paid money at the cash-desk. The cashier gave me a receipt and I came up to the shop-assistant again. She passed me a wrapped parcel, thanked me and said she was always glad to see me again at their shop. After that I bought a beautiful birthday card. I was happy and a bit excited to buy such a good present and went out of the shop.

On my way home I suddenly remembered that my mother asked me to buy some food products. We had run out of bread and I had to drop in at the baker's. I bought a loaf of brown bread, some rolls and buns. Then I made my way to the grocer's where I bought a kilo of sugar and some sausage. There was a vegetable stall near the bus stop, and I decided to buy some oranges and apples. On my way home I was thinking about a nice present I had managed to buy.

Текст № 13. У готелі. Послуги працівників готелю

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