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4. Give the answers to the questions below.

1. What is specification?

2. What benefits does the agreement upon a written specification have?

3. What places to look for errors are there in a specification?

4. How can you provide structure?

5. What steps should you follow in planning any project?

6. What is task allocation?

5. Translate into English.

1. Спецификация – определение вашего проекта: заявление проблемы, а не ее решение.

2. Места возможных ошибок в спецификации:

  • глобальный контекст;

  • интерфейсы;

  • шкала времени;

  • внешние зависимости.

3. Решив, для чего предназначена спецификация, ваша следующая проблема состоит в том, чтобы решить то, что вы и ваша команда фактически должны сделать и как сделать это.

4. В планировании любого проекта вы следуете простыми шагами: если пункт является слишком сложным, чтобы справиться, его нужно заменить списком более простых пунктов.

5. Как менеджер, вы должны смотреть далеко за рамки одного проекта; действительно, любой отдельный проект может рассматриваться как шаг в развитии вашей команды.

Module X What Makes a Great Manager

Vocabulary

  1. Read and remember the following words and word-combinations

1. common sense – здравый смысл, разум

8. flexibility – эластичность, гибкость

2. to acquire – приобретать, усваивать

9. environment – окружение, среда

3. unique – уникальный, единственный

10. to appropriate – предназначать, присваивать

4. to cite – цитировать, отмечать

11. to monitor – проверять,

контролировать

5. vision – поле зрения, проницательность, мечта, образ

12. complacency – самодовольство

6. mission – миссия, призвание, цель, задание

13. to recognize – узнавать, признавать

7. tough – трудный, крепкий, жесткий

14. to seize – схватить, захватывать

2. Group the words into subject groups:

Three faces of a manager, mission, the most cited characteristics of a manager, planner, vision, provider, flexibility, protector, leadership.

Reading

3. Read the text and be ready to answer the questions. What makes a great manager

The first steps to becoming a really great manager are simply common sense; but common sense is not very common. The manger of a small team has three major roles to play: a planner, a provider and a protector.

A Manager has to take a long-term view; indeed, the higher you rise, the further you will have to look. While a team member will be working towards known and established goals, the manager must look further ahead so that these goals are selected wisely. A Manager has access to information and materials which the team needs. Often he/she has the authority or influence to acquire things which no one else in the team could. This role for the manager is important simply because no one else can do the job; there is some authority which the manager holds uniquely within the team, and the manager must exercise this to help the team to work. The team needs security from the vagaries of less enlightened managers. In any company, there are short-term excitements which can deflect the work-force from the important issues. The manager should be there to guard against these and to protect the team.

One of the most cited characteristics of successful managers is that of vision.

The meaning of vision which concerns you as a manager is: a vivid idea of what the future should be. This implies two things: - you need to decide where your team is headed, - you have to communicate that vision to them.

Once you have identified your vision, you can illustrate it with a concrete goal, a mission. A mission has two important qualities: - it should be tough, but achievable given sufficient effort, - it must be possible to tell when it has been achieved.

One of the main challenges in management is in avoiding pat answers to everyday questions. A deliberate flexibility is not just an academic exercise to find the best answer. The point is that the situation and the environment are continually changing; and the rate of change is generally increasing with advancing technology. If you do not continually adapt (through experimentation) to accommodate these changes, then the solution which used to work (and which you still habitually apply) will no longer be appropriate.

Before you start any activity you must STOP and THINK about it: what is the objective, how can it be achieved, what are the alternatives, who needs to be involved, what will it cost, is it worth doing? When you have a plan you should STOP and THINK about how to ensure that your plan is working.

The great managers are the ones who challenge the existing complacency and who are prepared to lead their teams forward towards a personal vision. They are the ones who recognize problems, seize opportunities, and create their own future.

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