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МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ, МОЛОДІ ТА СПОРТУ УКРАЇНИ

Національний технічний університет України

«Київський політехнічний інститут»

ВСТУП ДО ЗАГАЛЬНОТЕХНІЧНОЇ АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ Методичні рекомендації до практичних занять для студентів І курсу напрямів підготовки 6.040201 «Математика», 6.040203 «Фізика»

(електронне видання)

Рекомендовано Вченою радою факультету лінгвістики НТУУ «КПІ»

Київ

НТУУ «КПІ»

2012

Вступ до загальнотехнічної англійської мови: Методичні рекомендації до практичних занять для студентів І курсу напрямів підготовки 6.040201

«Математика», 6.040203 «Фізика» (електронне видання)/Уклад.: Кузьміна І. П., Василенко Л. О.– К.: НТУУ «КПІ», 2012. - 106 с.

Гриф надано Вченою радою факультету лінгвістики НТУУ «КПІ» (Протокол № 8 від 26.03.2012 р.)

Навчальне видання

Вступ до загальнотехнічної англійської мови.

Методичні рекомендації до практичних занять для студентів І курсу напрямів підготовки 6.040201 «Математика», 6.040203 «Фізика»

(електронне видання)

Укладачі:

Кузьміна Ірина Петрівна

 

Василенко Лариса Олександрівна

Відповідальний редактор:

Ю. Е. Лавриш, канд. пед. наук

Рецензенти:

О. О. Бесклетна, ст. викл.

 

О. М. Медкова, ст. викл.

 

Л. М. Щербань, ст. викл.

2

CONTENTS

 

Передмова………………………………………………………………………4

Unit I. The Brain………………………………………………………………...5

Unit II. Artificial Intelligence. Is it possible?......................................................

13

Unit III. Newtonian Mechanics...........................................................................

19

Unit IV. The Structure of the Atom…………………………………………….26

Unit V. Home-reading. Archimedes of Syracuse………………………………32

Unit VI. Electricity and Magnetism……………………………………………36

Unit VII. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans………………………42

Unit VIII. Invent your way to riches…………………………………………48

Unit IX. Descending to New Ocean Depths……………………………………53

Unit X. Home-reading. Jacques-Yves Cousteau………………………………60

Unit XI. Computers…………………………………………………………….63

Unit XII. Environment Protection ……………………………………………69

Unit XIII. Television………………………………………………………….75

Unit XIV. Made in Space………………………………………………………84

Unit XV. Home-reading. Galileo Galilei………………………………………92

Appendix 1…………………………………………………………………….96

Appendix 2….………………………………………………………………..103

Список використаної літератури…………………………………………..106

3

ПЕРЕДМОВА

Дані методичні рекомендації призначені для роботи зі студентами І курсу фізико-математичного факультету під час практичних занять. Матеріали у методичних рекомендаціях мають загальнотехнічний напрямок і є першою сходинкою на шляху до знань з англійської мови професійного спрямування.

Методичні рекомендації розроблено на основі оригінальних текстів за темами, що мають практичний та пізнавальний інтерес для студентів технічного вищого навчального закладу.

Методичні рекомендації включають у себе 15 занять (у тому числі тексти для домашнього читання), додатки (кросворди та ін.) і

таблицю неправильних дієслів.

Робота з виданням розширить словниковий запас студентів і дасть можливість покращити компетенцію усного та письмового мовлення.

Кожне заняття складається з тексту для опрацювання та вправ,

спрямованих на розвиток навичок аудіювання, читання, перекладу,

говоріння та письма.

На думку укладачів дані методичні рекомендації допоможуть студентам досягти поставленої мети, а саме – набуття основ знань та навичок для подальшої можливості професійного спілкування англійською мовою.

4

UNIT I. THE BRAIN

Exercise 1. You are going to listen to the text. Be ready to agree or disagree

with the following statements.

1.Eating fish may make us better at passing examinations.

2.Old people who eat fish regularly may remember things better.

3.Eating fish may keep us four years mentally younger.

4.People who do not eat fish spend less time thinking.

5.A study looked at the eating habits of more than 6,000 old people.

6.Our body fat is important for the brain‟s development.

7.Salmon and tuna do not help the brain.

8.The study appears in the latest issue of the “Fish and Brain” journal.

Exercise 2. Look at the following words. Remember the spelling and pronunciation of these words. Work in pairs and check up your memorizing.

universe

['juːnɪvɜːs]

всесвіт

mental activity

['ment(ə)l æk'tɪvətɪ]

розумова діяльність

philosopher

[fɪ'lɔsəfə]

філософ

ancient

['eɪn(t)ʃ(ə)nt]

давній, старовинний

ability

[ə'bɪlətɪ]

здатність, спроможність

amount

[ə'maunt]

кількість, величина,

 

 

результат, значення

complicated

['kɔmplɪkeɪtɪd]

складний (для розуміння)

brain

[breɪn]

(тут) мозок

mind

[maɪnd]

розум, розумові здібності

5

Exercise 3. You are going to read the text. Be ready to answer the following

questions.

1.What is the main idea of the text?

2.Does man know everything about his brain work?

3.Where was the human mind located according to ancient Greece philosophers?

4.What did scientists find out in the 19th century?

5.What are the achievements in the brain research now?

6.How many chemical reactions take place in the brain every second?

7.Does the power of the brain decrease during human‟s lifetime?

8.Do we use the full potential of our brain?

9.What did chemists and biologists find in the past 50 years?

10.What questions can‟t scientists find answers to?

THE BRAIN

In the previous century man has made many discoveries about the universe – the world outside himself. But he has also started to look into the workings of that other universe

which is inside himself – the human brain. Man still has a lot to learn about the most powerful and complex part of his body – the brain.

In ancient times men did not think that the brain was the centre of mental activity. Aristotle, the philosopher of ancient Greece, thought that the mind was based in the heart. It was not until the 18th

6

century that man realized that the whole of the brain is involved in the workings of the mind. During the 19th century scientists found that when certain parts of the brain were damaged, men lost the ability to do certain things. And so people thought that each part of the brain controlled a different activity. But modern research has found that this is not so. It is not easy to say exactly what each part of the brain does.

In the past 50 years there has been a great increase in the amount of research being done on the brain. Chemists and biologists have found that the way the brain works is far more complicated than they had thought. In fact, many people believe that we are only now really starting to learn the truth about how the human brain works. The more scientists find out, the more questions they are unable to answer. For instance, chemists have found that over 100,000 chemical reactions take place in the brain every second!

Scientists hope that if we can discover how the brain works, the better use we will be able to put it to. For example, how do we learn language? Man differs most from all the other animals in his ability to learn and use language, but we still do not know exactly how this is done. Earlier

scientists thought that during a men‟s lifetime the power of his brain decreases. But it is now thought that this is not so. As long as the brain is given plenty of exercises, it keeps its power. It has been found that an old person who has always been mentally active has a quicker mind than a young person who has done only physical work. It is now thought that the more work we give our brains, the more work they are able to do.

7

Exercise 4. After reading the text state whether the following sentences are true

or false.

1)In ancient times men thought that brain was the centre of mental activity.

2)Each part of the brain controls a different activity.

3)100 000 chemical reactions take place in the brain every second.

4)Earlier scientists thought that during a men‟s lifetime the power of his brain increases.

5)The more work we give our brains, the more work they are able to do.

Exercise 5. You have read the text. Find English equivalents for the following Ukrainian word combinations:

людський мозок, наймогутніша та найскладніша частина тіла, давні часи,

розумова діяльність, втрачати здатність, робити деякі речі, кількість досліджень на мозку, фактично, дійсно лише починати вивчати, чим більше вчені знаходять, тим на більше питань вони не можуть відповісти,

хімічні реакції, здатність вчити і використовувати мову, швидший розум,

єдина границя сили мозку, найкращим чином використовувати це.

Exercise 6. Pretend that your partner does not know the meaning of the following words. Try to explain him/her how you understand them.

Previous, complex, unable, possible, certain, actually, plenty, decrease.

Exercise 7. Complete the following sentences using the information from the text you have just read.

1)In the previous century man has made many discoveries …

2)The most powerful and complex part of man‟s body is …

3)During the 19th century scientists found that …

4)Many people believe that we are only now really starting to …

8

5)The more scientists find out, …

6)Man differs most from all the other animals in his ability …

7)The more work we give our brains, …

Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the comparative

construction.

1)The more scientists find out, the more questions they are unable to answer.

2)The more countries you visit, the more interesting your life is.

3)The more we know, the more we forget.

4)The more we forget, the less we know.

5)The smaller the particles, the faster they move.

6)The greater acceleration, the faster the speed.

7)The higher the temperature, the more energy is released.

8)The more work we give our brains, the more work they are able to do.

9)The better education you get, the greater opportunities you have.

Exercise 9. Put questions to the following sentences. Do this task in writing.

1.The human brain is so complex that the exact prediction of its behaviour is essentially impossible.

2.The tools of cybernetics give us the power to increase our mental capabilities.

3.Artificial intelligence is the field of computer science that studies how machines can be made to act intelligently.

4.Can machines (robots) be made as intelligent as human beings?

5.Man knows his mind insufficiently. A man supplied with intelligent cybernetics devices – the products of man‟s reason – thinks deeper and wider than a man who has to resort only to the primitive means of his own intellect.

9

6.Cybernetics deals with the fantastic world of the future peopled by robots and electronic brains.

7.The cyberneticians today turned their attention to the study of the higher cerebral functions and the intricacies of intelligence.

8.All arithmetic operations performed by human brain differ radically from the physical processes used in analog computers.

9.Since the time when computer programmes managed to process symbolic data, one could speak of computer aptitude to solve intellectual problem and the origin of the artificial intellect research.

10.The techniques for processing images can be applied not only in scientific research and medicine but also in fields such as criminology and military intelligence.

11.Is the exhaustive analysis of human reason into rule-governed operations on discrete, determinate, context-free elements possible? Is the approximation to the goal of artificial intelligence even probable? The answer for both questions is No.12.

12.The problem of testing a machine to see whether it is intelligent was first discussed by the great British logician and computer pioneer, Alan Turing, noted for his wits.

Exercise 10. Read the following facts about the brain and share your

knowledge on the topic with other students.

Brain Facts that make you go, "Hmmmmm".

The adult human brain weighs about 3 pounds (1,300-1,400 g).

The adult human brain is about 2% of the total body weight.

The elephant brain weighs about 6,000 g.

The cat brain weighs about 30 g.

The average human brain is 140 mm wide.

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