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1. Личные, притяжательные и неопределенные местоимения (Personal,

Possessive and Indefinite Pronouns).

2. Настоящее, прошедшее и будущее простое время (Present, Past and

Future Simple Tenses).

3. Условные предложения 1го типа (First Conditional Sentences).

4. Причастие (Participle I).

5. Настоящее и прошедшее длительное время (Present and Past

Continuous Tense).

6. Временные формы глагола (Present and Past Simple Tenses of the

English Verb) в страдательном залогах (Passive Voice).

7. Степени сравнения прилагательных (Degrees of Comparison).

8. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты (Modal verbs and their


ЗАДАНИЕ №1. Выберите английские эквиваленты для слов, стоящих в скобках:

1. Tell (им) about your travelling.

a) they; b) their; c) them; d) her

2. This town is very green because there are a lot of trees in (ero) streets.

a) him;. b) his; c) its; d) it

3. (Haша) country is one of the largest countries in the world.

a) we; b) our; c) their; d) her

4. Peter the Great was a great reformer, (eгo) reforms changed Russia


a) its; b) he; c) him; d) his

5. Nick is telling (нам ) about his work.

a) them; b) we; c) our; d) us

6. She has … bread.

a) few; b) little; c) many; d) much

7. Me friend speaks English (немного).

a) many; b) a few; c) few; d) a little

8. Are there... places of interest in your town? ­Yes, there are...

a) any; b) no; c) some; d) something

9. He saw... interesting in this museum.

a) anything; b) somewhere; c) nothing; d) anywhere

10. ... rang you up.

a) somewhere; b) anybody; c) something; d) somebody

11. ... building of this city attracts thousands of tourists.

a) some; b) any; c) something; d) anything

12. Unfortunately ... knew the history of this ancient region.

a) nobody; b) somebody; с) anybody; d) nothing

ЗАДАНИЕ №2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в форме Present Simple, Past Simple и Future Simple Tenses.

1. Agriculture and manufacturing ( to provide)hundreds of new goods for

consumers every year.

2. The prices for fuel (to be) very high next year.

3. Consumers (to pay) for some extra services, such as medicine, education ,


4. What data the economist(to analyze)last year?-He (to analyze)changes in

prices for chocolate.

5. How the company (to distribute) its goods in many Russian cities?

6.Mining industry (to provide) resources for manufacturing branches of


7. You (to like) Professor Smith’s lectures on economics, I am sure.

8. My parents(not/to study)economics at the University they (to study)


ЗАДАНИЕ №3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на условные предложения 1го типа и раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в форме (First Conditional).

  1. If the government’s policy (to be) proper, employment (to be) higher.

  2. If Russia (to improve) conditions of scientists’ work, there (to be) great progress in science.

  3. When the enterprise (to work) more profitably, it (to compete) with other enterprises more successfully.

  4. When the factory (to produce) more goods, it (to require) more resources.

  5. Before the manager (to make) a decision, he (to study) all the data.

  6. If the price of the good (not to raise), the company (not to make) any profits.

  7. If the economists (not to use) the new method of analysis, they (not to make) a correct model.

  8. After prices (to rise), the demand for these goods (to fall).


  1. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания

(Причастие I).

Processing industries; growing demand; developing relationships; increasing productivity; growing scarcity; working plants; changing buyers’ behaviour.

  1. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания с

причастным оборотом.

Consumers choosing the cheapest goods; economies coping with resources scarcity; economists predicting new tendencies; industries belonging to the primary sector; companies having high profits; data showing differences between regions; economists dealing with labour markets.

ЗАДАНИЕ №5. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в форме Present и Past Continuous Tenses.

1. The factory (to employ) new workers now.

2. They (to study) the economic situation in the area.

3. I (not/to learn) French, I (to learn) English.

4. They haven’t sold the products, they (to sell) them now.

5. The two companies (to complete) in the market.

6. We (to apply) new technology.

7. You (to work) at the report on a macroeconomic problem?

8. The consumption of fruit and vegetables (to increase) in our country.

9. Unemployment (to grow) at the moment?

ЗАДАНИЕ №6. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в форме страдательного залога (Present and Past Simple Passive Voices).

1.The goods ( to sell) at a high price.

2. Consumers’ behaviour ( to study) by a group of economists.

3. Such a situation ( to predict) by economists long ago.

4. Not many bank services (to provide) for clients in the Soviet Union.

5. New workers(to employ) by the company every year?

6. Medicine ( not / to study) by school students but economics ( to study) at


7. Goods for consumers ( to provide ) by industryand agriclture.

8. Goverment investments (to require) by this plant last year.

ЗАДАНИЕ №7. Образуйте степени сравнения прилагательных (Degrees of Comparison), обращая внимания на артикли

1.The central regions of the country are (industrialized) than northern parts.

2. Living conditions in some Latin American countries are (bad) than in

developing Asian countries.

3. It was (easy) to make a decision than economists thought.

4. This is (important) stage in the processing of the product.

5. Nowadays mining plants use (modern) machiens than ten years ago.

6. Bananas require (hot) climate for growth than potatoes.

7. Consumers were interested in (cheap) goods of (high) quality.

8. Sometimes the work of a farmer is (difficult) than that of an industrial


9. Food, clothes and a house are(necessary) things for man`s life.

10. Angola is known as a ( little ) developed country.

ЗАДАНИЕ №8. Вставьте модальные глаголы can, could или модальный оборот to be able to в нужной форме.

1.Even at present computers ... (not) translate from one foreingn language

into another without mistakes.

2. by means of computer programmes economists ... make more complex

economic models in future.

3. The firm was closed as it ... (not) to pay its debts.

4. Small nations ... ensure their economic security only by effective

cooperation with other nations.

ЗАДАНИЕ №9. Переведите и определите, какими частями речи являются однокоренные слова:

1. competition, to compete, competitor, competitive

2. to apply, applied, application

3. industry, industrial, industrialized

4. to adjust, adjustment

5. scarce, scarcity, scarcely

6. to educate, education, educative

7. to consume, consumer, consumption

8. to introduce, introduction

ЗАДАНИЕ №10. Переведите предложения. Обращая внимание на выделенные слова, подберите к ним необходимые определения:

a) сonsumer; b) buyer; c) customer; d) client; e) clientele; f) purchaser;

1. A person who buys something (a formal word).

2. The people, especially rich people, who regularly use a shop or restaurant

or the services of a professional person.

3. Someone who buys goods from a particular shop, restaurant, or company.

4. Someone who is buying something expensive such as a house, company, or painting, usually from another person.

5. Someone who pays for services or advice from a professional person or


6. A person who buys and uses goods and services.

ЗАДАНИЕ №11. Переведите текст на русский язык и выполните задания к нему.


It is difficult to give a full and accurate definition of economics, but it is possible to indicate what problems economists are interested in. They are factors that affect prices of goods and services and also resources necessary to produce them. Economists are also interested in sellers’ and buyers’ behaviour in the market, in the relationship between “price system” and “market mechanism”.

Now economics is more complex. There are three main approaches to economics: misroeconomics, macroeconomics and development economics. There are also several specialized areas of study. Among them are money economics, international economics, labour economics, industrial economics, agricultural economics, growth economics, mathematical economics, etc.

Like many other sciences, economics uses models to understand economic problems. A model often helps an economist to make correct predictins. The economist usually folows several rules when he makes a model of economic behaviour.

First, real life is complex and it is not possible for any economist to include all the details in a model. So, a model is an abstraction from real life. A model usually includes only essential elements and relationships of a particular economic situation.

Second, if an economist has two different models of one phenomenon, he always chooses the model that predicts the results of a particular phenomenon more accurately.

Third, although models are helpful in economic analysis, an economist always studies the actual economic situation before he makes decisions.

It is not enough to make models, it is also necessary to collect and study actual data in order to know how accurate a model is.

I. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

What problems are economists interested in?

What are three main approaches to economics?

What specialized areas of economics do you know?

Why do economists use economic models/

Why is it not possible to include all the details in a model?

What does a model usually include?

Which of the models does an economist always choose?

Why is it necessary for an economist to collect and study actual data?

II. Переведите следующие словосочетания:

Market analysis, labour economics, labour market study, goods and services prices, growth economics problems, actual economic situation details, consumer behaviour, future predicion, growth mechanism, agriculture and manufacturing relationship, mineral resources prices, agricultural product price growth, area development, trade growth prediction.



1. Причастие (Participle II).

2. Настоящее совершенное время (Present Perfect and Past SimpleTenses).

3. Основные обстоятельственные наречия времени.

4. Настоящее простое, настоящее длительное и настоящее совершенное

время (Present Simple, Past Simple, Present Continuous and Present Perfect


5. Страдательный залог (Passive Voice).

6. Сложное дополнение (Complex object).

7. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты (Modal verbs and their equivalents).

8. Глаголы с послелогами (Prepositional Phrasal Verbs).

ЗАДАНИЕ №1. Переведите на русский язык.

    1. .Из слов, данных ниже, образуйте словосочетания с причастием II

(Participle II) в качестве определения к существительному.

to develop – market, to use – labour, to study – data, to reach – progress, to sell – foodstuffs, to increase – population

1.2.Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания с причастным оборотом.

Services provided by the company; models made by economists; relationships studied by them; trade developed by these two countries; crops grown in the area; income distributed among many people

ЗАДАНИЕ №2. .Раскрыв скобки, употребите глагол в форме простого прошедшего (Past Simple) или настоящего совершенного времени (Present Perfect).

1.The family income (not/to rise)last year.

2. I ( to find) already the necessary data in the Internet.

3. In the 1960s, mexico (to make) great progress in the development of its

light manufacturing industry.

4. We (to see) just a documentary film on TV about Brazil which (to

make) by the BBC a year ago.

5. Some African countries (not/to solve) the problem of education for all

population yet, but they (to reach) a success in some industries recently.

6. The world population (to increase) in recent years because African and

Asian population (to grow) very fast.

7. The economic growth in China (to be) the highest lately.

8. The living standard of population (to fall)last year?

9. We (to see) the latest figures about the income per capita in the country,

they (to publish) in a newspaper yesterday.

10. Since India (to become) an English colony, English (to be) an official

language in the country and most Indians (to speak) it for many years.

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