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  1. Put the following words and expressions into their correct place in the table depending on their function.

to sum up briefly  it can be concluded that  also  similarly  likewise  besides 

to conclude  too  in addition  in brief  in the same way  thus  what’s more  furthermore  moreover  along with  to summarize  as well as  therefore  correspondingly


(for example: and)


(for example: equally)


(for example: in conclusion)

  1. Complete these sentences with one of the words or expressions from above. In most cases, more than one answer is possible.

  1. Tourism brings much-needed money to developing countries. _________, it provides employment for the local population.

  2. _______ bringing much-needed money to developing countries, tourism provides employment for the local population.

  3. Tourists should respect the local environment. _______ they should respect the local customs.

  4. _______ industrial waste, pollution from car fumes is poisoning the environment.

  5. In order to travel, you need a passport. _______, you might need a visa, immunization jabs and written permission to visit certain areas.

  6. Drugs are banned in Britain - _______ weapons such as guns and knives.

  7. All power corrupts. _______, absolute power corrupts absolutely.

  8. You shouldn’t smoke, drink, take drugs or eat unhealthy food. _______, you should live a more healthy lifestyle.

  9. The ozone layer is becoming depleted, the air in the cities is becoming too dirty to breathe and our seas and rivers are no longer safe to swim in. _______ pollution is slowly destroying the planet.

  10. Your grades have been very poor for the past two years. ________ you need to work really hard if you want to pass your exams next month.

Task 10. Study the information on references and bibliographies and do exercises a and b.

References are arranged in alphabetical order (A-Z) of the author’s surname or the name of the organization. If more than one author has the same surname, they should appear in alphabetical order of the initial of the first name. If more than one reference is given by the same author, then the earlier dated reference will appear first. If two or more references by the same author appear in the same year, they will be labeled in sequence with letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the year. References to one author are normally listed before those of joint authorship of the same author.

There are differences between references to books and references to journals.

  • Note the sequence of information commonly used in references to books: Author’s name, initials, date (in brackets), title (underlined or in italics), place of publication, publisher. E.g.

Wallace, M.J. (1998). Study Skills in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

  • Note the sequence of information commonly used in references to articles in journals: Author’s surname, initials, date (in brackets), title of article, name of journal (underlined or in italics), volume number, issue number, sometimes season or month, sometimes page numbers. E.g.

West, R. (2008). Needs analysis in language teaching. Language Teaching, 27 (1): 1-19

Note: Volume and issue numbers may also be written: Vol. 27 no.1

  1. It is important that references are arranged in strict alphabetical order. Surnames beginning with Mc are treated as if their spelling was Mac e.g. McKenzie, like Mackenzie, will come before Madison.

The following surnames (and initials) are those of authors of books. Number the names in each list in alphabetical order from 1 to 12.

List A List B

Dawson, E. ___ Johns, T.F. ___

Davidson, D. ___ James, K. ___

Davey, A.C. ___ Johnson, R. ___

Davies, C.T. ___ Jones, J.F. ___

Day, D.A. ___ Johnston, S.A. ___

Davey, A.M. ___ Jackson, J. ___

Dawkins, R. ___ Johnson, K. ___

Davis, A. ___ James, C.V. ___

Davidson, G.D. ___ Johns, A.M. ___

Davies, C.W. ___ Jones, C. ___

Davy, A.. ___ Johns, C. ___

Dawes, C.G. ___ James, D.V. ___

  1. There are a number of errors in the bibliography below. These may be to do with the order of items or the omission of some details. Mark the places where the errors occur and then write a description of the error and what is needed to correct it.

Abbot, G. (1991). Encouraging communication in English: a paradox. ELT Journal.

James, K. (2004a). The writing of thesis by speakers of English as a Foreign Language: the results of a case study. In R. Williams, J. Swales and J. Kirkman (Eds.). Common ground: shared interests in ESP and communication studies. ELT documents: 117.

James (2004b). Speak to Learn.

McDonough, J. (2008). ESP in Perspective: A Practical Guide. Collins ELT: London.

Mackay, R. & A. Mountford (Eds.) (2002). English for Specific Purposes. London: Longman.

Zamel, V. Responding to student writing. TESOL Quarterly, 19 (1).

Swales, J.M. (1998). The role of the textbook in EAP writing research. English for Specific Purposes, 14 (1).

Swales, J.M. and C.B. Feak (1997). Academic Writing for Graduate Students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

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