Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
шпоры теор фонетика.doc7.doc
121.34 Кб

19.Types of syntactic lincs.

Syntax is a part of grammar that deals with laws of arrangement of words in lower units.

Syntactic units are word groups, sentences & text.

In every speech utterance words are connected with other elements of the same sentenced. Such links are called syntactic. They are divided into direct & indirect. Direct links unite such words of the same sentence that have some semantic link as well (If we can ask a question from one word to the other one directly).

Syntactic links can be on 3 types: subordination, coordination & predication.

In the case of subordination the elements are not equal. We single out the Head word & the Adjunct (a blue pen). In this case the syntactic function a word group coincides with the function of the Head. The Adjunct can be omitted from the sentence but the Head cannot.

In case of coordination the syntactic function of the whole word group coincides with the function of every element (I bought pen & pencils).

In case of predication the function of the whole structure doesn’t coincide with functions of each element because these elements are subject & predicate.

Besides subordination in most languages is expressed in 3 ways: agreement, government & enjoinment.

Agreement demand that the Adjunct should take the form of the Head word. Both words are used in the same form.

Government is determination of the form of Adjunct by the Head which doesn’t change itself.

Enjoinment - a kind of syntactic relation where we understand the link between 2 words only on the level of meaning because we do not see any formal signs of this link

21.Simple sentence.

Sentence is the smallest unit of communication as we conveying our thoughts with the help of sentence. The S is only language unit. A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a statement, question, exclamation, request or command.

Being a communicative unit sentence is divided into theme & reme. Theme is smth known, reme is smth new.

Structurally SS can be 2 member & 1 member ones. 2 member can be extended & unextended (нераспростр.).

1 member sentence is divided according to morphological & semantic criteria.

Morph. :

Nominal, adjectival, verbal


Existential (fog everywhere), qualifying (how nice!), interrogative (how to refuse him&), imoerative (come here!)

1 member s. should not be mixed with elliptical s. which are deficient(неполные) in structure. The subject or predicate in such sentence can be omitted but it can be reconstructed. 1 member s. do not need any reconstructions (I bought 2 books, but he 3 or 4).

22.Principal parts of the sentence

The subject and the predicate constitute the backbone of the sentence: without them the sentence would not exist at all, whereas all other parts may or may not be there, and if they are there, they serve to define or modify either the subject or the predicate, or each other.

The subject is one of the 2 main parts of the sentence:

It denotes the thing whose action or characteristic is expressed by the predicate.

It is not dependent on any other part of the sentence.

The predicate is one of the 2 main parts of the sentence:

It denotes the action or property of the thing expressed by the subject

It is not dependent on any other part of the sentence.

Ways of expressing the predicate are varied and their structure will better be considered under the heading of types of predicate.

It is sometimes claimed that the predicate agrees in number with the subject: when the subject is in the singular, the predicate is bound to be in the singular, and vice versa. However this statement is very doubtful.

Types of predicate:

Predicates may be classified in 2 ways, one of which is based on their structure (simple or compound), and the other on their morphological characteristics (verbal or nominal).

Structural classification:

simple predicate (verbal and nominal)

compound predicate (verbaland nominal

Morphological classification:

verbal predicate (simple and compound)

nominal predicate(simple and compound)

23. Secondary parts of sentence. Difficulties of their classification.The theory of the secondary parts (SP) is one of the last developed sections of linguistics. The object is a SP of the sentence, referring to a part of the sentence expressed by a verb, a noun, a substan’tival pronoun, an adj., a numeral, or an adv., and denoting a thing to which the action passes on, which is a result of the action, in reference(относительно) to which an action is committed(совершено) or a property(св-во, кач-во) is manifested(проявляться), or denoting an action as object of another action. An object can refer to any part of speech capable of being a part of the sentence. Attribute is a SP of the sentence modifying a part of the sentence expressed by a noun, a substantival pronoun, a cardinal (колич.) numeral, and any substantivized word, and characterizing the thing named by these words as to its quality or property. The attribute, as distinct from the object, cannot modify (определять) a verb, an adj, an adv, the attribute expresses a property while the object expresses a thing, but they both can modify a noun, a pronoun, a numeral. Adv. modifier is a SP of the sentence modifying a part of the sentence expressed by a verb, a verbal noun, an adj, an adv, and serving to characterize an action or a property as to its quality or intensity, or to indicate the way an action is done, the time, the place, cause, purpose, condition, with which the action or the manifestation of the quality is connected.

24.Transitional sentences are sent. that neither simple nor composite. Structurally they have only 1 subject-predicate line but they also have some extension. The meaning of this extension is equal to another clause which is meant but not expressed.

If we paraphrase we get another clause & the whole sentence becomes composite. The link between the clause &the extension can both subordinate &coordinate.


  • With homogeneous subjects or predicates

  • Sentences with a dependent appendix

  • Sent. with secondary predication

25.Complex sentences describe more than one thing or idea and have more than one verb in them. They are made up of more than one clause, an independent clause (that can stand by itself) and a dependent (subordinate) clause (which cannot stand by itself).

For example:

"My mother likes dogs that don't bark."

Dependent clauses can be nominal, adverbial or adjectival.

Соседние файлы в предмете [НЕСОРТИРОВАННОЕ]