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High middle ages

Anselm of Canterbury (1033 – 1109)



was a Benedictine monk, a philosopher, and a prelate of the church who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. Called the founder of scholasticism, he is famous as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God.

Ансельм Кентерберийский

Pope Urban II (ca. 1035 – 1099)


was Pope from 12 March 1088 until his death on July 29 1099. He is most known for starting the First Crusade (1096–1099) and setting up the modern day Roman Curia, in the manner of a royal court, to help run the Church

Папа Урбан 2

Omar Khayyam (1048 – 1131)


was a Persian polymath: philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet. He also wrote treatises on mechanics, geography, mineralogy, music, climatology and theology

Омар Хаям

Roscellinus (Roscelin of Compiegne, ca. 1050 – ca.1120)




was a French philosopher and theologian, often regarded as the founder of nominalism

Peter Abelard (1079 – 1142)


was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian and preeminent logician. The story of his affair with and love for Héloïse has become legendary. The Chambers Biographical Dictionary describes him as "the keenest thinker and boldest theologian of the 12th Century".

Пьер Абеляр

Bernard of Clairvaux (1090 – 1153)



was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian order.

Бернард из Клерво

Order of Cistercians (Cistercians)


is a Catholic religious order of enclosed monks and nuns. They are sometimes also called the Bernardines or the White Monks, in reference to the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular is worn.

Орден цистерианцев

Knights Hospitaller or Order of Hospitallers


were a group of men attached to a hospital in Jerusalem that was founded by Blessed Gerard around 1023 out of which two major Orders of Chivalry evolved—the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Order of St. Lazarus.

Орден Госпитальеров

Peter Lombard (ca. 1100 – 1160)


was a scholastic theologian and bishop and author of Four Books of Sentences, which became the standard textbook of theology, for which he is also known as Magister Sententiarum.

Thomas Becket (Saint Thomas of Canterbury, ca. 1116 – 1170)


was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II of England over the rights and privileges of the Church and was assassinated by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after the death of Thomas Becket, Pope Alexander III canonized him.

Томас Бекет

Knights Templar or Order of the Temple (Templars)


were among the most famous of the Western Christian military orders The organization existed for nearly two centuries during the Middle Ages.

Храмовничий орден

Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 – 1190)



was a German Holy Roman Emperor. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March, crowned King of Italy in Pavia in 1155, and finally crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV, on 18 June 1155, and two years later in 1157 the term "sacrum" (i.e. "holy") first appeared in a document in connection with his Empire. He was then also formally crowned King of Burgundy at Arles on 30 June 1178.

Фридрих Барбаросса

Averroes (Ibn Rushd, 1126 – 1198)


was a Muslim polymath; a master of Aristotelian philosophy, Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, Maliki law and jurisprudence, logic, psychology, politics, Arabic music theory, and the sciences of medicine, astronomy, geography, mathematics, physics and celestial mechanics. He was born in Córdoba, Al Andalus, modern-day Spain, and died in Marrakesh, Morocco. His school of philosophy is known as Averroism.


Maimonides (1135 – 1204)


was a preeminent medieval Jewish philosopher and one of the greatest Torah scholars and physicians of the Middle Ages. He was born in Córdoba, Spain on Passover Eve, 1135, and died in Egypt (or Tiberias) on 20th Tevet, December 12, 1204. He was a rabbi, physician and philosopher in Morocco and Egypt.

Маймонид (?)

Saladin (ca. 1137 – 1193)


was an Arabized Kurdish Muslim who became the first Sultan of Egypt and Syria, and founded the Ayyubid dynasty. He led Muslim and Arab opposition to the Franks and other European Crusaders in the Levant. At the height of his power, his sultanate included Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, Hejaz, and Yemen.


House of Hohenstaufen


was a dynasty of German kings in the High Middle Ages, lasting from 1138 to 1254. Three of these kings were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor. In 1194 the Hohenstaufens also became Kings of Sicily. Hohenstaufen or Staufen, the adjective and plural of Staufer, is also the name of their castle in Swabia, located on an eponymous mountain near Göppingen, built by the first known member of the dynasty, Duke Frederick I. The dynasty is sometimes called Swabian dynasty after the family's ducal origin.

Дом Гогенштауфенов



were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, the split between these two parties was a particularly important aspect of the internal policy of the Italian city-states.




were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, the split between these two parties was a particularly important aspect of the internal policy of the Italian city-states.


Albigenses or Cathars

[ˌælbɪʹʤensi:z] [ʹkæθɑ:z]

was a name given to a Christian religious sect with dualistic and gnostic elements that appeared in the Languedoc region of France and other parts of Europe in the 11th century and flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. Catharism had its roots in the Paulician movement in Armenia and the Bogomils of Bulgaria which took influences from the Paulicians.


Pope Innocent III (ca. 1161 – 1216)


was Pope from 8 January 1198 until his death. His birth name was Lotario dei Conti di Segni, sometimes anglicised to Lothar of Segni. Pope Innocent was one of the most powerful and influential popes in the history of the papacy, who exerted a wide influence over the Christian regimes of Europe, claiming supremacy over all of Europe's kings.

Папа инносент 3

Genghis Khan (ca. 1162 – 1227)

[ˌɡeŋɡɪsʹkɑ:n] or [ˌʤeŋɡɪsʹkɑ:n]

born Temujin and occasionally known by his temple name Taizu (太祖), was the founder and Great Khan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death


John Lackland (1166 – 1212)


was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death. During John's reign, England lost the duchy of Normandy to King Philip II of France, which resulted in the collapse of most of the Angevin Empire and contributed to the subsequent growth in power of the Capetian dynasty during the 13th century.

Иоанн Безземельный

Saint Dominic (1170 – 1221)


was the founder of the Friars Preachers, popularly called the Dominicans or Order of Preachers (OP), a Catholic religious order. Dominic is the patron saint of astronomers.

Святой Доминик

Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, ca. 1170 – ca. 1250)


was an Italian mathematician, considered by some "the most talented western mathematician of the Middle Ages. Fibonacci is best known to the modern world for the spreading of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in Europe, primarily through the publication in the early 13th century of his Book of Calculation, the Liber Abaci; and for a number sequence named after him known as the Fibonacci numbers, which he did not discover but used as an example in the Liber Abaci.


Saint Francis of Assisi (1182 – 1226)



was an Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Franciscan Order, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the lay Third Order of Saint Francis.[3] St. Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history

Святой Франциск Ассизский

Vincent of Beauvais (ca. 1190 – 1264?)



wrote the Speculum Maius, the main encyclopedia that was used in the Middle Ages.

Винсент из Бове

Teutonic Order


is a German medieval military order, in modern times a purely religious Catholic order. It was formed to aid Christians on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land and to establish hospitals. Its members have commonly been known as the Teutonic Knights, since they also served as a crusading military order in the Middle Ages.

Тевтонский орден

Albertus Magnus (Albert the Great, 1193/1206 – 1280)



He was a German Dominican friar and a bishop, who achieved fame for his comprehensive knowledge of and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion.

Альберт Великий

Roger Bacon (Doctor Mirabilis, 1220 – 1292)


was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empirical methods. He is sometimes credited, mainly starting in the 19th century, as one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method inspired by the works of Aristotle and later pseudo-Aristotelian works, possibly of Arabic origins

Роджер Бэкон

Bonaventure (1221 – 1274)


was an Italian medieval scholastic theologian and philosopher. The seventh Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, he was also a Cardinal Bishop of Albano. He was canonized on 14 April 1482 by Pope Sixtus IV and declared a Doctor of the Church in the year 1588 by Pope Sixtus V. He is known as the "Seraphic Doctor" (Latin: Doctor Seraphicus). Many writings believed in the Middle Ages to be his are now collected under the name Pseudo-Bonaventura.

Thomas Aquinas (1224 – 1274)


was an Italian Dominican priest of the Catholic Church, and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, known as Doctor Angelicus, Doctor Communis, or Doctor Universalis. "Aquinas" is not a surname (hereditary surnames were not then in common use in Europe), but is a Latin adjective meaning "of Aquino", his place of birth. He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology, and the father of Thomism.

Фома Аквинский

Ramon Lull (Raymond Lully, 1232 – 1315)


was a Majorcan writer and philosopher, logician and tertiary Franciscan. He wrote the first major work of Catalan literature. Recently-surfaced manuscripts show him to have anticipated by several centuries prominent work on elections theory. He is sometimes considered a pioneer of computation theory, especially given his influence on Gottfried Leibniz. Llull is well known also as a glossator of Roman Law.

Рэймонд Луллий

Marco Polo (ca. 1254 – 1324)


was a Venetian merchant traveler from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, travelled through Asia and apparently met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time

Марко Поло


(pl. Palaeologoi)


was a Byzantine Greek noble family, which produced the last ruling dynasty of the Byzantine Empire. After the Fourth Crusade, members of the family fled to the neighboring Empire of Nicaea, where Michael VIII Palaiologos became co-emperor in 1259, recaptured Constantinople and was crowned sole emperor of the Byzantine Empire in 1261. His descendants ruled the empire until the Fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks on May 29, 1453, becoming the longest-lived dynasty in Byzantine history


Meister Eckhart (Eckhart von Hochheim, ca. 1260 – ca. 1327)


was a German theologian, philosopher and mystic, born near Gotha, in the Landgraviate of Thuringia in the Holy Roman Empire. Meister is German for "Master", referring to the academic title Magister in theologia he obtained in Paris was a German theologian, philosopher and mystic, born near Gotha, in the Landgraviate of Thuringia in the Holy Roman Empire. Meister is German for "Master", referring to the academic title Magister in theologia he obtained in Paris

Мейстер Экхарт

House of Plantagenet


a branch of the Angevins, was a royal house founded by Geoffrey V of Anjou, father of Henry II of England. Plantagenet kings first ruled the Kingdom of England in the 12th century. Their paternal ancestors originated in the French province of Gâtinais and gained the County of Anjou through marriage during the 11th century. The dynasty accumulated several other holdings, building the Angevin Empire that at its peak stretched from the Pyrenees to Ireland and the border with Scotland.

Дом Плантагенетов

Dante Alighieri (1265 – 1321)

[ʹdæntɪ] or [ʹdɑ:nteɪ]

was an Italian poet, prose writer, literary theorist, moral philosopher, and political thinker. He is best known for the monumental epic poem La commedia, later named La divina commedia (The Divine Comedy). His Divine Comedy, originally called Commedia and later called Divina by Boccaccio, is considered the greatest literary work composed in the Italian language and a masterpiece of world literature

Данте Алигьери

Duns Scotus, John (1266 – 1308)


was one of the more important theologians and philosophers of the High Middle Ages. He was nicknamed Doctor Subtilis for his penetrating and subtle manner of thought.

Дунс Скот Джон

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