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7. Give the three forms of the following verbs:

To make, to become, to build, to come, to give, to be, to know, to change, to have.

8. These words can be used both as verbs and nouns. Make up your own sentences to show the difference in their usage:

Note, interest, influence, brick, span, dome, arch, cement, join.

9. Write the derivatives of the following words:

Brief, build, easy, cheap, durable, large, obtain, wood, transport, transport, know, character, successful, new, construct.

10. Read the text and get ready to speak about the history of building materials:


It is of interest to note briefly the influence of building materials upon the schools of architecture. Where clay abounded, as in Egypt, sun-dried bricks were easily and cheaply made. Stone was also obtainable, and because of its durability it became the material of the temples and palaces; the less pretentious dwellings were built of brick. In Mesopotamia large brick buildings were constructed, and, in the absence of stone and wood to span their areas, the arch and dome came into being. Greece possessed perfect marble for columns and beams, and the arch and dome received little attention. A fortunate combination of lime, limestone, clay and pozzuolana gave Rome stone and cement, and the great mass of her structures is largely due to the union of stone, brick, strong mortar, and concrete. In Northern Europe, Switzerland and Russia, where forests abounded and other materials were difficult to obtain, wooden architecture was characteristic for buildings of all types.

Science, machinery, and easy transportation are now bringing to the hands of architects resources of materials hitherto unknown or unobtainable.

All building materials are divided into three groups:

1) Main building materials such as stones, artificial stones, timber and metals.

2) Binding materials such as lime, gypsum and cement.

3) Secondary materials.

We use main building materials for bearing structures. Binding materials are used for making artificial stones and for joining different planes. For the interior finish of a building we use secondary materials.

If the materials don’t require any changes in their chemical structure they are known as natural building materials. They are stone, clay, sand, lime and timber.

Cement, clay products and concrete are examples of artificial building materials.

It should be mentioned that nowadays building materials are changed into units of assembly, prefabricated or precast construction members. The new materials of construction are characterized by increased strength. Structural, insulating and surfacing requirements are combined in a single system. As a result a greater speed in housing construction has been achieved.

Now the scale of construction is growing from year to year in our country. This requires the use of the new building methods and the new building materials which play a very important role in the work of architects and builders. They help to develop modern architecture, speed up construction work and decrease its cost. We are building thousands of new blocks of flats, schools, hospitals and a large number of industrial enterprises. A great percentage of the houses are constructed by house-building plants. This building method is successfully applied in different cities and towns of Belarus. Millions of Belarusian people get new flats and houses every year. The newly built blocks of flats have all modern conveniences, making our life more and more comfortable.

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