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  1. Nuclear material(ядерный материал)

Plutonium except that with isotopic concentration exceeding 80% in plutonium-238; uranium-233; uranium enriched in the isotope 235 or 233; uranium containing the mixture of isotopes as occurring in nature other than in the form of ore or ore residue; any material containing one or more of the foregoing [1].

---Special Nuclear Material consists of uranium-233 or uranium-235, enriched uranium, or plutonium [17].

---Conference sought to call upon all states that have not yet done so to accede to all relevant conventions that would strengthen nuclear safety and security, specifically on physical protection of nuclear material and facilities [32].

--- The amended Convention makes it legally binding for States Parties to protect nuclear facilities and material in peaceful domestic use, storage as well as transport [8].

  1. Storage(хранение)

The holding of radioactive sources, spent fuel or radioactive waste in a facility that provides for its containment, with the intention of retrieval [4].

---In many cases, the only element of this definition that is important is the distinction between disposal (with no intent to retrieve) and storage (with intent to retrieve) [4].

--- Dry cask storage allows spent fuel that has already been cooled in the spent fuel pool for at least one year to be surrounded by inert gas inside a container called a cask [20].

---Interim storage of spent nuclear fuel typically consists moving fuel rods to cooling pools followed by transfer to casks for longterm storage [20].

  1. Dry storage (сухое хранение)

Storage in a gaseous environment, such as air or an inert gas.

---Dry storage facilities include facilities for the storage of spent fuel in casks, silos or vaults [42].

--- Utilities began turning to dry storage to manage their spent fuel onsite [41].

--- Since the first casks were loaded in 1986, dry storage has released no radiation that affected the public or contaminated the environment [41].

  1. Wet storage (мокрое хранение)

Storage in water or in another liquid.

---The universal mode of wet storage consists in storing spent fuel assemblies or spent fuel elements in pools of water or other liquids, usually supported on racks or in baskets and/or in canisters that also contain liquid [4].

--- Wet storages spent nuclear fuel in Russia are the ferroconcrete designs revetted with stainless steel [39].

--- The first "dry" storage in Zheleznogorsk was built in the fall of 2010, and today, according to head of Rosatom Sergey Kiriyenko, this complex has no analogues in the world. Prior to this the plant used temporary "wet" storage built nearly thirty years ago [43].

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle (ядерный топливный цикл)

All operations associated with the production of nuclear energy, including:

  • Mining and processing of uranium or thorium ores;

  • Enrichment of uranium;

  • Manufacture of nuclear fuel;

  • Operation of nuclear reactors (including research reactors);

  • Reprocessing of spent fuel;

  • All waste management activities (including decommissioning) relating to operations associated with the production of nuclear energy;

  • Any related research and development activities.

---The nuclear fuel cycle uses uranium in different chemical and physical forms. As illustrated below, this cycle typically includes several stages [17].

--- The mission of NE-54 is primarily focused on activities related to the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle which includes mining, milling, conversion, and enrichment [21].

---If the use world is to see a more widespread use of nuclear power, the nuclear fuel cycle must be closely monitored or there will be a widely proliferated nuclear weapons capability [21].