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  1. Radioactive (радиоактивный)

The phenomenon whereby atoms undergo spontaneous random disintegration, usually accompanied by the emission of radiation.

--- Long-lived radioactive elements such as uranium, thorium and potassium and any of their decay products, such as radium and radon are examples of NORM. [47].

---The emissions of the most common forms of spontaneous radioactive decay are the alpha (α) particle, the beta (β) particle, the gamma (γ) ray, and the neutrino [22].

---Scottish Environment Protection Agency are responsible for the regulation of all radioactive substances, helping to maintain and protect a safe and healthy environment.

  1. Spent fuel(отработавшее топливо)

Nuclear fuel removed from a reactor following irradiation that is no longer usable in its present form because of depletion of fissile material, poison buildup or radiation damage.

---Nuclear spent fuel that has been irradiated in and permanently removed from a reactor core [14].

--- Spent fuel that has been removed from a reactor is ordinarily stored in a water-filled spent fuel pool for a year or more (in some sites 10 to 20 years) in order to cool it and provide shielding from its radioactivity [23].

--- Practical spent fuel pool designs generally do not rely on passive cooling but rather require that the water be actively pumped through heat exchangers [23].

  1. Decontamination (дезактивация)

The complete or partial removal of contamination by a deliberate physical, chemical or biological process.

--- The purpose of decontamination is to prevent the spread of micro-organisms and other contaminants that may threaten the health of human beings or animals or damage the environment [30].

--- Methods of decontamination include: physical cleaning, water purification, ultrasonic cleaning, disinfection, antisepsis, sterilization [30].

---The most important and most effective decontamination of any chemical exposure is that decontamination done within the first minute or two after exposure [30].

  1. Fissile material(делящийся материал)

Uranium-233, uranium-235, plutonium-239, plutonium-241 or any combination of these radionuclides. Excepted from this definition are:

  • Natural uranium or depleted uranium which is unirradiated;

  • Natural uranium or depleted uranium which has been irradiated in thermal reactors only [15].

--- Fissile materials are composed of atoms that can be split by neutrons in a self-sustaining chain-reaction to release enormous amounts of energy [31].

--- The most important fissile materials for nuclear energy and nuclear weapons are an isotope of plutonium, plutonium-239, and an isotope of uranium, uranium-235. Uranium-235 occurs in nature [31].

---Materials that readily undergo fission are called fissile materials [15].

References

  1. Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, INFCIRC/274 Rev.1, IAEA, Vienna (1980); The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities, INFCIRC/225/Rev.4(Corrected), IAEA, Vienna (1999); Guidance and Considerations for the Implementation of INFCIRC/225/Rev.4, The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities, IAEA-TECDOC-967 Rev.1, IAEA, Vienna (2000); Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, IAEA International Law Series No. 2, IAEA, Vienna (2006). (The final act of the new Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities was approved on 8 July 2005.

See http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Features/PhysicalProtection/index.html)

  1. Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, INFCIRC/546, IAEA, Vienna (1997).

  2. INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Radioactive Waste Management Glossary, IAEA, Vienna (2003).

  3. Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, IAEA, Vienna (2004).

  4. INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION, Data for Use in Protection against External Radiation, Publication 51, Pergamon Press, Oxford and New York (1987). (Superseded by ICRP Publication 74.)

  5. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION, OECD NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY, PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series No. 115, IAEA, Vienna (1996).

  6. IAEA GOV/2005/50.

  7. INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material — 2005 edition, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, IAEA, Vienna (2005).

  8. INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Safety Assessment and Verification for Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-1.2, IAEA, Vienna (2002).

  9. Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, Vienna (1990).

  10. INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, Including Decommissioning, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. WS-R-2, IAEA, Vienna (2000).

  11. Convention on Nuclear Safety, INFCIRC/449, IAEA, Vienna (1994).

  12. Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, INFCIRC/546, IAEA, Vienna (1997).

  13. INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR SAFETY ADVISORY GROUP, Defence in Depth in Nuclear Safety, INSAG Series No. 10, IAEA, Vienna (1996).

  14. Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities, INFCIRC/754, 29 May 2009

  15. Connecting to Meet the Objectives of the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Framework, [http://www-ns.iaea.org/coordination/gnssn.asp?s=110&l=126]

  16. The licensing of nuclear installations [http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1468_web.pdf]

  17. Protecting people and the environment [http://www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac.html]

  18. The Excessive Use of Weapons and Banned Weapons by Akira Maeda, Sayo Saruta, Koichi Inamori, ICTI [http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article9322.htm]

  19. Iran hands over stockpile of enriched uranium to Russia, David E. Sanger and Andrew E. Kramer [http://russia-insider.com/en/politics/iran-hands-over-enriched-uranium-stockpile-russia/ri12062]

  20. How uranium ore is made into nuclear fuel, [http://www.world-nuclear.org/]

  21. http://www.britannica.com/

  22. Office of Environment, Health, Safety & Security, http://energy.gov

  23. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_facilities_in_Iran

  24. Photonics Encyclopedia [https://www.rp-photonics.com/encyclopedia.html]

  25. Appendix E, Physical Protection Systems. https://www.princeton.edu

  26. Uranium Enrichment (Updated November 2015) [http://www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/ur-enrichment.html]

  27. http://de.areva.com

  28. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities, INFCIRC/225/Rev. 4 (corr.), IAEA, Vienna (1999).

  29. Health & Safety Executive: Methods of decontamination. Accessed 16 August 2013

  30. Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, For a safer, healthier environment and the democratization of science [http://ieer.org/resource/books/energy-and-agriculture-in-the-third-world/?format=pdf]

  31. Nuclear power debate [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power_debate]

  32. Green Energy: Technology, Economics and Policy, редактор(ы): U. Aswathanarayana, Tulsidas Harikrishnan, Thayyib S. Kadher-Mohien

  33. Wiley Open Access [http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/view/journals.html?page=3]

  34. The Excessive Use of Weapons and Banned Weapons by Akira Maeda, Sayo Saruta, Koichi Inamori, ICTI The Use of Depleted Uranium (DU) Weapons, [http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article9322.htm]

  35. Uranium Enrichment [http://web.ead.anl.gov/uranium/guide/depletedu/enrich/]

  36. Электронный ресурс [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fuel]

  37. Application for a Nuclear Site Licence to install and operate two EPR™ reactor units at Hinkley Point

  38. [http://www.atomic-energy.ru/news/2015/12/16/61998]

  39. [http://www.nuclear-power.net/nuclear-power-plant/nuclear-fuel/uranium/uranium-233/]

  40. Backgrounder on Dry Cask Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel [http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/dry-cask-storage.html]

  41. [http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/te_1100_prn.pdf]

  42. Thousands of tons of nuclear wastes to travel across Russia 20.01.2012 [http://www.pravdareport.com/business/companies/20-01-2012/120287-nuclear_wastes-0/]

  43. Background Radiation Levels [http://nextbigfuture.com/2012/07/background-radiation-levels.html]

  44. [http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/opinions_layman/depleted-uranium/en/]

  45. [http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and-security/safety-of-plants/appendices/nuclear-regulation-regulators.aspx]

  46. Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) [http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and-security/radiation-and-health/naturally-occurring-radioactive-materials-norm.aspx]