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Unit5. Terms

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences and define the meaning of the interbranch homonims “leader”, “bank”, “control”, “adjustment”, “floor”, “wall”, “board”, “behavior” and “cell” usage.

1. a) Gorillas live in family groups that consist of a single mail leader, or silverback; some younger, black-backed males, possibly sons of the silverback; several adult females; and varied number of juvenile and infant offspring. b) The society publishes many materials, including the monthly reviewing journal Mathematical Reviews. It is also a leader in electronic publication.

2. a) The foehn wall, a cloud bank marking the upper limit of precipitation, hangs over mountain ridges, often obscuring them. b) The move follows reports that a new mechanised suction dredge is breaking up river banks, blocking rivers and killing fish. c) The banks, in turn, claimed that their hands were tied by federal regulators who discouraged them from lending.

3. a) This method of pollution control is the most effective and, as the cost of pollution control and waste disposal increase, is considered one of the most efficient. b) Other measures have included control of herd size by shooting the animals with hormonal darts to sterilize them. c) Servomechanisms use mechanical motion rather than electric or electronic signals to measure changes requiring control.

4. a) Adolescents may often view their parents as having little capacity to guide them in their adjustment to the larger world. b) As the 1990s began, popular movements that included farmers, workers, women, envi­ronmentalists and community groups in the South were challenging the adjus­tment policies and large-scale projects that were wreaking havoc on the poor and on the environment. c) With careful adjustment, the instrument measures the dip or inclination of the Earth’s magnetic field to the local horizontal.

5. a) Built floor by floor, steel frame structures can be erected to great heights. b) Oceanic mineral resources include various metallic and nonmetallic materials of differing origin and economic potential that occur on or beneath the floor of the continental shelf and ocean basin. c) During inspiration the floor of the mouth cavity depresses, forming a negative pressure that causes water to flow into the mouth. d) Be­low the shorter trees are shrubs; and covering the forest floor is a layer of herba­ceous (nonwoody) plants growing in soil inhabited by fungi and bacteria.

6. a) A curtain wall is an exterior wall that carries no floor loads; it usual­ly is made principally of metal, stone, glass, or precast concrete. b) The heart wall is made up of special type of striated muscle fibers called cardiac muscle.

7. a) In a piano, violin, or guitar some sound is radiated directly by the vibrating strings, but it is augmented by the sounding board, which is a vibrating plate. b) An expansion board, also called an expansion card, is a printed circuit board that plugs into a slot in a personal computer. c) Generally, after four years’ experience beyond a college education, a civil engineer may be licensed by a state board of registration for professional engineers.

8. a) Psychopaths are selfish, callous, and exploitative in their use of ot­hers, and often become involved in socially deviant behaviors. b) Because norms vary from society to society, behavior that is considered deviant in one society may be acceptable and common in another. Thus, behavior is not deviant in itself. Rather, it is deviant only insofar as it violates the norms of a particular social system.

9. a) Like some miniature, walled city in perpetual rush hour, the cell constantly bustles with traffic, shuttling essential molecules from place to place to carry out the business of living. b) In computer spreadsheet terminology a cell is a rectangular space that can hold text, a value, or a formula. c) Conventional punishment for criminal conduct includes confining inmates in cells, restricting their freedom, and obligating them to follow rigid behavioral codes. d) The most common source of power for Earth-orbiting satellites is a combination of solar cells with a battery backup.

Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences and define the meaning of the interbranch homonims “linguistic” andsurgery” usage.

1. a) The second solution is to regard linguistic knowledge or competence as a characteristic of the individual child. b) When the linguistic usage of the term semantics was first introduced into English in the late 19th century, it referred to the classification of historical change in word meanings. c) In writing speech sounds or other linguistic ele­ments are represented as visual symbols, which are then perceived and proces­sed visually (reading).

2. a) In ancient India, the Hindus surgically treated bone fractures and removed bladder stones, tumors, and infected tonsils. They are also credited with having developed plastic surgery as early as 2000 bc in response to the punishment of cutting off a person’s nose or ears for certain criminal offenses. b) Surgeons rarely opened the abdomen, chest, or skull because of the pain it caused the patient and the risk of infection. This changed in 1846 when anesthesia was used as a way to mask pain during surgery by American dentist William Morton. c) In 1865 the British surgeon Joseph Lister applied Pasteur’s work to surgery, developing antiseptic techniques including the use of a carbolic acid spray to kill germs in the surgery. d) The development of the heart-lung machine in 1953 by American surgeon John H. Gibbon allowed surgeons to more easily and successfully perform surgery on these organs. It also marked the beginning of modern clinical heart surgery.

Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences and define the adequate way of terms rendering.

a) terms with prefix after-:

1. Many small earthquakes, called aftershocks, occur in the hours and days following a large earthquake. These aftershocks result from the rock near the fault adjusting to accommodate the new stress levels. 2. About 62% of U.S. aid during this period was designed to facilitate the economic recovery of war-torn industrialized countries, to alleviate the immediate aftereffects of natural disasters, or to stimulate economic growth in less-developed countries. 3. The object of Epicureanism was pleasure, but pleasure of an austere kind involving primarily freedom from fear of the gods and of an afterlife. 4. Contemporary torpedoes consist of four major components, which are, from front to rear, a warhead, a fuel section, an afterbody, and a tail section. 5. Port, a slightly sweet after-dinner wine, is made from grapes grown in the Douro valley of Por­tugal, near the city of Oporto.

b) terms with prefix counter-:

1. The counter­culture, which arose in the United States during the 1960s and persisted to some extent into the 1970s, was a social revolt among middle-class young people. 2. When the party to whom the offer is made responds with a different offer, called a counteroffer, the original offer is terminated. 3. For democratic states difficulties in securing evidence and proving conspiracy, plus the overriding need to protect intelligence sources and surveillance techniques, have shifted the emphasis of counter-terrorism methods from deterrence to pre­vention. 4. Such drugs, however, are frequently overused and may be counterproductive or even hazardous in simple anxiety states, in which a little anxiety may actually be useful.

c) terms with prefix under-:

1. Emphasis today is on long-term investigations of such large-scale phenomena as ocean currents, under-ice topography, and the relationship of the Antarctic ice sheet to global climate. 2. Underemployment occurs when a worker’s abilities and education are not fully used in a job position. 3. The abrupt transition between regions of oceanic crust and continental crust creates the huge undersea escarpments called the continental slopes. 4. Infrared photography may clarify obscure inscriptions, underpainting, underdrawing, and other below-surface characteristics.

d) terms with prefix -like:

1. Despite these theories, no Earthlike planets have as yet been detected with certainty outside the solar system. 2. Researchers generally mark the beginning of the UFO phenomenon as the sighting of dirigible-like “mystery ships” over the United States in 1896-97. 3. Paleontologists theorize that the ape-like animals of these millennia were tree-living creatures with long arms and legs. 4. Like the photon, the phonon has particlelike characteristics.

e) terms with prefix -less:

1. Today new “chipless” techniques have been developed that use high-speed electrochemical processes to machine metals. 2. The long-range, or tactical, cruise missile is a small pilotless aircraft armed with either a conventional or nuclear warhead. 3. Gum, a sticky substance obtained from plants, is a complex compound derived from carbohydrates and is tasteless and odorless. 4. A weightless state produce effects on a body’s cardiovascular and nervous systems as well as on its blood, muscles and skeleton.

f) terms with prefix -worthy:

1. The flight demonstrated that the vehicle was spaceworthy for the duration of a lunar mission. 2. Firstly, loan demand must come from creditworthy customers who can guarantee loan repayment at a future date. 3. The cactus family contains numerous attractive and noteworthy members.

Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences pauing special attention to the quoted author’s terms rendering.

1. Consequently, psychologists have pioneered the development of sophisticated “meta-analytic” statistical techniques capable of integrating all the data from all the experiments. 2. The term “high technology” is also used loosely to describe a functional aesthetic, as in “high technology” design. 3. In lay terms, alienation is seen to be characterized by a general disintegration of traditional cultural values, as exemplified by the “generation gap”.

Exercise 5. Translate the following homonymic terminological abbreviations and acronyms and define their meaning in the given spheres.

O.S. – медицина, геология, языкознание, компьютерные технологии, химия, военное дело, банковское дело; T – физика, химия, телекоммуникация, грамматика, медицина, религия; Com – военное дело, торговое дело; Met – металлургия, языкознание, философия, метеорология; SC – машиностроение, химия, военное дело.