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POLITICAL

THEORIES

for Students

POLITICAL

THEORIES

for Students

Matthew Miskelly and Jaime Noce,

Editors

Political Theories for Students

Staff

Editors: Jaime E. Noce and Matthew Miskelly.

Contributing Editors: Kathleen E. Maki-Potts, Rebecca Marlow-Ferguson, Christine Maurer, Jeff Sumner.

Managing Editor, Content: Erin E. Braun. Managing Editor, Product: Amanda C. Quick. Technical Specialist: Paul Lewon.

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Copyright Notice

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All rights to the publication will be vigorously defended.

Copyright © 2002 by The Gale Group, Inc.

27500 Drake Rd.

Farmington Hills, MI 48331

All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form.

Library of Congress Control Number: 2002100951

ISBN 0-7876-5645-3

Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

i v

 

 

Table of Contents

ADVISORS AND CONTRIBUTORS . . . . . . .

VII

INTRODUCTION

. . . . . . . . .

IX

COMPARISON TABLE OF POLITICAL THEORIES . . .

XI

ANARCHISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

Biography: William Godwin . . . . . .

3

Biography: Lysander Spooner . . . . .

5

Biography: Mikhail Bakunin . . . . . .

11

Biography: Peter Kropotkin . . . . . .

12

Biography: Emma Goldman . . . . . .

13

CAPITALISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

Biography: Adam Smith . . . . . . . .

26

Major Writings: Wealth of Nations . . .

28

Biography: Franklin Delano Roosevelt . .

32

COMMUNISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

Major Writings: The Communist

 

Manifesto . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

Major Writings: Animal Farm . . . . .

54

Biography: Mao Tse–Tung . . . . . . .

56

Biography: Fidel Castro . . . . . . . .

59

CONSERVATISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

Biography: Edmund Burke . . . . . . .

66

v

T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s

Biography: Sir Winston Churchill . . . .

74

Biography: Ronald Reagan . . . . . . .

81

FASCISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

Major Writings: Mein Kampf . . . . . .

92

Biography: Benito Mussolini . . . . . .

99

Biography: Adolf Hitler . . . . . . . .

103

FEDERALISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

111

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

112

Biography: Hiawatha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

113

Biography: James Madison . . . . . . .

115

Biography: Franklin Delano Roosevelt . .

118

Biography: Lyndon B. Johnson . . . . .

121

Major Writings: The Federalist Papers . .

123

Biography: Johannes Althusius . . . . .

125

FEUDALISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

130

Major Writings: History of the Kings

 

of Britain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

131

Biography: Marie de France . . . . . . .

133

Biography: Eleanor of Aquitaine . . . .

135

Biography: William the Conqueror . . .

141

Biography: Ieyasu Tokugawa . . . . . . 142

Major Writings: Feudalism in Fiction . .

144

IMPERIALISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

147

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

148

Biography: Genghis Khan . . . . . . .

155

Biography: King Shaka Zulu . . . . . .

162

LIBERALISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

171

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

172

Biography: Friedrich A. Hayek . . . . .

177

Biography: John Stuart Mill . . . . . . .

184

LIBERTARIANISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

193

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

194

Biography: John Locke . . . . . . . . .

195

Biography: Adam Smith . . . . . . . .

196

Biography: Frederic Bastiat . . . . . . .

197

Major Writings: Social Statics . . . . . .

198

Major Writings: Two Treatises of Civil

Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

Biography: Ayn Rand . . . . . . . . .

200

Major Writings: An Inquiry into the Nature

 

and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . . .

202

Biography: Friedrich A. Hayek . . . . .

203

Biography: Russell Means . . . . . . .

206

MARXISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

211

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

212

Biography: Karl Marx . . . . . . . . .

213

Major Writings: Das Kapital . . . . . .

215

Biography: Friedrich Engels . . . . . .

220

Biography: Vladimir Lenin . . . . . . .

223

NATIONALISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

229

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

230

Biography: Johann Gottfried Herder . . .

232

Major Writings: “Qu’est–ce qu’une

 

nation?” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

239

PACIFISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

253

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

254

Major Writings: Deuteronomy . . . . . .

258

Biography: Lala ’Aziza . . . . . . . . .

260

Biography: Mohandas Gandhi . . . . . .

263

Major Writings: Letter from a

 

Birmingham Jail . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

PATRON–CLIENT SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . .

277

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

278

Major Writings: Adrian IV . . . . . . .

286

Major Writings: A Theory of Justice . . .

289

Biography: Juan Perón . . . . . . . . .

292

POPULISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

301

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

302

Biography: Andrew Jackson . . . . . .

303

Biography: George Wallace . . . . . . .

305

Biography: Aleksandr Herzen . . . . . .

310

Biography: H. Ross Perot . . . . . . . .

313

REPUBLICANISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

317

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

318

Biography: Aristotle . . . . . . . . . .

320

Biography: Niccolò Machiavelli . . . . .

326

Major Writings: The Federalist Papers . .

330

SOCIALISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

339

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

340

Biography: Sidney Webb and Beatrice

 

Potter Webb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

Biography: Ne Win . . . . . . . . . .

350

TOTALITARIANISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

361

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

362

Major Writings: Leviathan . . . . . . .

371

Biography: Friedrich Nietzsche . . . . .

372

Biography: Hannah Arendt . . . . . . .

383

UTOPIANISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

387

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

388

Biography: Plato . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

Biography: Sir Thomas More . . . . . .

396

Biography: Aldous Huxley . . . . . . .

403

GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

409

INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

417

v i

P o l i t i c a l

T h e o r i e s

f o r

S t u d e n t s

Advisors and Contributors

Advisors

The contents of Political Theories for Students were devised in cooperation with the following individuals who were consulted based on their awareness of student social studies needs.

Chris Ford: Teacher, Northville High School,

Northville, Michigan.

Christine Godin: Librarian, Northwest Vista Col-

lege, San Antonio, Texas.

Contributors

The following writers are the primary contributors to Political Theories for Students.

Bob Catley: Professor, School of Business, Northern Territory University, Darwin, Australia. Contributed the entries on Imperialism, Liberalism, and Socialism.

Barbara Lakeberg Dridi: Ph.D.; Political scientist and educator. Founder and Director, Concordia International Research. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Contributed the entry on Nationalism.

Alison Graham: Freelance journalist. Evanston, Illinois. Contributed the entries on Capitalism, Communism, and Marxism.

Lauri R. Harding: Attorney and freelance writer. Melbourne, Kentucky. Contributed the entry on Conservatism.

John Higgins: Freelance writer specializing in fields of psychology, social issues, and politics. Kirkfieldbank, Scotland. Contributed the entry on Fascism.

Jonathan Marks: Ph.D.; Visiting Assistant Professor, Political Theory and Constitutional Democracy, James Madison College, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan. Contributed the entry on Republicanism.

Amy H. Sturgis: Ph.D.; Editor in Chief, Humane Studies Review, Institute for Humane Studies. Lebanon, Tennessee. Contributed the entries on Anarchism, Federalism, Feudalism, Libertarianism, Populism, and Utopianism.

John C. Yoder: Ph.D; Professor, Comparative Politics and Peace Studies, Politics and History Department, Whitworth College, Spokane, Washington. Contributed the entries on Pacifism, Patron–Client Systems, and Totalitarianism.

v i i

Political Theories for Students has been designed to provide in depth information about political theories and systems in use throughout the world, both in past and present times. While the book was designed to fulfill specific curricular needs and meet curriculum standards for high school and undergraduate college students and their teachers, it also serves the needs of the general reader and researcher. Nineteen theories and systems are presented in comprehensive essays that provide an overview of the theory or system, its historical context, analysis and critical response, and examples of the theory or system in action, as well as information about significant people whose ideas or actions contributed to the development or refinement of the system. Each essay includes supplementary sidebars, which include biographical information about major individuals involved with a theory or system, significant writings attached to the theory, and a chronology of key dates. Potential study questions and research topics, in addition to bibliographic citations and suggested further readings, guide readers to relevant subjects and other helpful research materials.

The list of topics for Political Theories for Students was selected by teachers and librarians regarding student research needs in their studies of political systems and government. Additionally, the editors accounted for the curriculum standards in place for high school social studies in compiling the required content for each essay. The nineteen theories presented in PTfS include the most–studied individuals, philosophies, and thoughts connected with post and present day systems and governments. Where appropriate,

Introduction

theories and systems that are closely related or that are rooted in another theory have been combined in one essay.

How Each Essay is Organized

Each essay contains the following elements:

At a Glance: Essays begin with key factual information in a “question and answer” format, found at the start of the Overview section. This allows the reader to quickly answer fundamental questions such as who controls the government, the powers held by the people, and major figures associated with the theory or system.

Overview: This section provides a brief and general description of the theory.

History: This section describes the background and history of the theory, including its origins and evolution, its main tenets and individuals associated with its development and practice, and a discussion of places and periods where it has been used in government.

Theory in Depth: This section outlines the philosophy of a theory and expands discussion of its main tenets with examples and explanations. It describes the political system’s general view on such topics as economics, civil liberties, and the military.

Theory in Action: This section describes the application of the theory in countries throughout the world and explains its effect. Examples and de-

i x

I n t r o d u c t i o n

tails about ruling bodies and individuals, political parties and factions, and elections, compare and contrast the theory’s use in different parts of the world. Additionally, this section includes perspectives from economic, humanitarian, and social points of view, as well as scope of the theory’s impact.

Analysis and Critical Response: This section analyzes the theory’s strengths and weaknesses and offers insight as to its success or failure. The critical response presents reaction from political leaders and historians.

Topics for Further Study: This section suggests related research topics and invites readers to expand upon ideas presented within the essay.

Bibliography: This section lists sources consulted and cited within the essay, as well as suggested further readings and sources for additional information.

Cross–references to related essays are found at the end of each essay.

In addition, essays in PTfS contain one or more of the following supplementary sidebars:

Chronology: This sidebar lists major dates and events associated with a theory.

Biography: This sidebar provides biographical and career details about an individual whose role was pivotal in developing the theory, producing major writings or ideas on the theory, or instituting the theory into practice.

Major Writings: This sidebar describes major works connected with the theory, and outlines their contents, creation, purpose, and impact.

Additional Features

Political Theories for Students provides the following tools to assist the reader in understanding ideas and terminology, and to compare and contrast the nineteen theories and systems that are presented:

Comparison Table of Political Theories: The table serves as a one–stop comparison tool to identify differences and similarities among the major theories and systems. It is organized by theory and graphically presents the information found in the At a Glance section

Glossary: The glossary contains 125 terms used throughout the essays.

Comments and Suggestions

The editors of Political Theories for Students welcome your comments and ideas. Please contact the editors at:

Editor, Political Theories for Students

Gale

27500 Drake Rd.

Farmington Hills, MI 48331

Telephone: (248) 699-4253

Toll-Free: (800) 347-4253

Fax: (248) 699-8052

x

P o l i t i c a l

T h e o r i e s

f o r

S t u d e n t s

Comparison Table of

Political Theories

The purpose of the Comparison Table is to allow for comparison and contrast of the political theories and systems presented in Political Theories for Students.

The Table details the following information about each system or theory:

Who controls government?

How is government put into power?

What roles do the people have?

Who controls production of goods?

Who controls distribution of goods?

Major figures

Historical example

x i

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