Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
MAC_111.pdf
Скачиваний:
593
Добавлен:
21.02.2016
Размер:
2.18 Mб
Скачать

MAC 111

INTRODUCTION TO MASS COMMUNICATION

UNIT 5 THEORIES OF MASS COMMUNICATION

CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Objective

3.0Main Content

3.1Understanding Theory

3.2Normative Theories

3.3Mass Society Theories (All-Powerful Media Effect)

3.4Social Scientific Approach (Limited Effects Theories)

3.5Theories of Media, Culture and Society

3.6Active Audience -Uses and Gratification Theory

3.7Media Violence. Children and Effects

3.8Common Sense Theories

4.0Conclusion

5.0Summary

6.0Tutor-Marked Assignment

7.0References/Further Readings

1.0INTRODUCTION

Theory is a conceptual representation or explanation of phenomenon. They are stories about how and why events occur. Kurt Lewin defines theory as a way of explaining the ordering and occurrence of various events. It can also be defined as a set of systematic generalizations based on scientific observation and leading to further empirical observation. (Severin and Tankard (Jnr.) 1982).

2.0OBJECTIVE

This unit exposes students to various mass communication theories, their origins, methods and uses. Students should be able to identify a theory that goes along with specific research studies in order to develop a theoretical framework for such.

3.0MAIN CONTENT

3.1Understanding Theory 3.1.1 Characteristics of Theory

These are some of the characteristics of theory and they could also be seen as criteria for a good theory.

35

MAC 111

INTRODUCTION TO MASS COMMUNICATION

A) Scientific Criteria

(1)Intellectual Rigour: - Every theory is a product of careful analysis and giving great attention to details. This process ensures that they are testable, verifiable or systematic.

(2)Dynamism: - Theories are subject to change; they are seldom constant because they can be modified or completely repudiated when new facts emerge.

(3)Predictive power: Theories enable us to make predictions but those predictions are rarely ever realized with exactitude. Theory is step behind reality.

(4)Economy: A good theory explains many cases with a few statements and with few exceptions, if any.

(5)Explanatory Power: ability of a theory to be used to explain a puzzling phenomenon

(6)Internal Consistency: There should be no contradiction in the process. The processes involved should agree with one another.

(7)Heuristic Potential: Should help to see a new thing or new things; or should be useful for solving problems.

(8)Practical Utility. Theories have usefulness to reality. They can be used to solve real life problems and issues

B) Aesthetic/Humanistic Criteria

1)Fresh (New) understanding of the human condition.

2)Societal valuecapacity to stimulate or generate change/clarification of values.

3)Aesthetic appealcapacity to capture our interest/imagination or pique our curiosity.

4)Community agreementacceptance and support by a “community” of (like-minded) scholars.

5)Capacity for social reforms. Ability to carry out useful reforms and changes in the society. The changes are mostly socio-economic in nature.

3.1.2 Why Study Theories?

Theories help to manage realities. Kurt Lewin says that theories enable us to put facts in perspective, and to predict what will happen, even before the events we are theorising about get completed. According to Kaplan, a theory enables us to make sense out of a disturbing situation. e.g. Detectives (Police) always formulate a theory to unravel a case, say murder case. We also study theories in order to derive intellectual satisfaction.

36

Тут вы можете оставить комментарий к выбранному абзацу или сообщить об ошибке.

Оставленные комментарии видны всем.

Соседние файлы в предмете [НЕСОРТИРОВАННОЕ]