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MAC 111

INTRODUCTION TO MASS COMMUNICATION

Fig. 3 SCHRAMM'S MODEL OF MASS COMMUNICATION 2

The figure above depicts in graphical manner the particular aspects of the mass communication process. This model is different from other models of mass communication in that while the original model has ‘message’, the mass communication model offers ‘many identical messages.’ Besides, the model specifies ‘feedback’. The feedback is represented by a dotted line labeled delayed inferential feedback. (Baran 2002)

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 3

Schramm’s model of communication posits that communication is interactive and interpretive. Discuss

3.4The Hub Model

Hiebert, Ungurait and Bohn designed the model. It shows mass communication process as circular, dynamic and ongoing. It pictures communication as a process similar to the series of actions that take place when one drops a pebble into a pool. The pebble causes a ripple which expands outward until it reaches the shore and then bounces backward to the centre. The content of communication {an idea or event} is like a pebble dropped into the pool of human affairs. So, many

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MAC 111

INTRODUCTION TO MASS COMMUNICATION

factors affect the message as it ripples out to its audience and bounces back.

The model pictures communication, codes, gatekeepers, media, regulators, filters and audiences as concentric circles through which the content {or message} must pass. Feedback is the echo that bounces back to communication while noise and amplification can both affect the message and the feedback as they travel these steps in the process.

Audience

Filters

Regulators

Media

Gatekeepers

Codes

Communication

C o n t e n t s

Media amplification

Feedback

HUB MODEL

Fig. 4: HUB model of communication

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 4

Give a detailed explanation of the concentric analogy used in the HBU model

4.0CONCLUSION

Communication models are designed to better explain communication theories and concepts. Models are communication tools that illustrate communication behaviour. They range from the very simple to the very

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MAC 111

INTRODUCTION TO MASS COMMUNICATION

complex. The underlying ideas represented by theses models are not anything new or hard to understand. They are simply the common sense realities of communication revealed in a diagram (Black, Bryant & Thompson 1998:22)

5.0SUMMARY

This unit has examined some models of communication and established the fact that these models are used to better understand the process of communication. Models examined include: Aristotle model, Lasswell model, Shannon and Weaver’s Model, Schramm model and the HUB model. The unit equally examined the weaknesses and strength of each of the models and attempted to use them to better explain the process of communication.

6.0TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Examine the various models discussed in this unit, what are their weaknesses and strength? Make a case for your favourite model and give reasons for your choice.

7.0REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Black, Bryant & Thompson (1998). Introduction to Media Communication. Boston: McGraw Hill.

Bitner, R. (1989). Mass Communication: An Introduction. New Jersey:

Prentice Hall.

Sambe J.A. (2005). Introduction to Mass Communication Practice in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.

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