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MAC 111

INTRODUCTION TO MASS COMMUNICATION

Entertainment

Monitoring government activities

Education

Social Cohesion

2.Social stability

When social change and conflict are high; and established institutions, beliefs, and practices are challenged; people make new evaluations and choices. In such cases of instability, reliance on media may increase.

Media Dependency Theory: Some Questions

1.Do media create needs?

2.Do people turn to media to achieve gratification and satisfy needs?

3.Are media needs personal, social, cultural, political, or all of these?

4.“The media are our friends”?

4.0CONCLUSION

The media effects theories arose as products of researches done to ascertain what media do to people. Most of these theories have their roots in earlier theories with roots in Sociology and Psychology.

The communication technology theories contend that the medium and not the message affect the audience. They believe that various media encourage and create in their audience, patterns of behaviours and views about the world.

Katz, and Jay G. Blumler’s uses and gratification theory is prominent in the functional use of the media. One good development is that media theorists have since built on Katz's original formulation. In 1974, Katz, and Jay G. Blumler characterized uses and gratification theory as "the social and psychological origins of needs, which generate expectations of the mass media or other sources, which lead to differential patterns of media exposure (or engagement in other activities), resulting in need gratifications and other consequences, perhaps mostly unintended ones" (Severin & Tankard, 330)."

5.0SUMMARY

This unit has been able to explain various media effect theories. It looked at those theories like Cultivation Theory as developed by George Gerbner; Social Action Theory ; Agenda-Setting Theory; Media Dependency Theory. Others include the Limited effects; Powerful Effect; Uses and Gratification; and the Cultural effects tradition.

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MAC 111

INTRODUCTION TO MASS COMMUNICATION

Uses and gratifications theory was discussed as subset of the activeaudience perspectives. One major criticism of the theory as popularized by McQuail (1994) is that the approach has not provided much successful prediction or causal explanation of media choice and use.

6.0TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

Give your understanding of the following media effects theories:

Cultivation Theory; Social Action Theory; Agenda-Setting Theory and; Media Dependency Theory.

7.0REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Blumler, J., & Katz, E. (1974). The Uses of Mass Communications. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

CCMS-Infobase. (2003). Mass Media: Effects Research - Uses and Gratifications. Retrieved October 10, 2005, from http://www. cultsock.ndirect. co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/media/

DeFleur, M. L. & Ball-Rokeach, S. J. (1989). Theories of Mass Communication (5th ed). New York: Longman.

Littlejohn, S. W. (1999). Theories of Human Communication (6th ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

West, R., & Turner, L. H. (2000). Introducing Communication Theory: Analysis and Application. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. Page 332.

Wood, J. T. (1997). Communication Theories in action: An Introduction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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