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A book intended for the public in general, including literary works, how-to books, dictionaries, encyclopedias and reference works intended for professionals. Any title that is not an educational or a scholarly book is considered to be a trade book.

Vanity Title

A publication dependent on a financial contribution from, or an initial purchase by, the author.


What are the challenges facing book publishing in Nigeria?

3.3Steps in Book Publishing

Below are the steps in book publishing as enumerated by wikipedia:

Submission by Author or Agent

Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of their time buying or commissioning copy. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. Writers often first submit a query letter or proposal. The majority of unsolicited submissions come from previously unpublished authors. When such manuscripts are unsolicited, they must go through the slush pile, in which acquisitions editors sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to the editorial staff. Established authors are often represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts.

Acceptance and Negotiation

Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of intellectual property rights and agree on royalty rates. The authors of traditional printed materials sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed (i.e. the rights match the legal systems under which copyright protections can be enforced). In the case of books, the publisher and writer must also agree on the intended formats of publication -— massmarket paperback, "trade" paperback and hardback are the most common options.

The situation is slightly more complex if electronic formatting is to be used. Where distribution is to be by CD-ROM or other physical media,


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there is no reason to treat this form differently from a paper format, and a national copyright is an acceptable approach. But the possibility of Internet download without the ability to restrict physical distribution within national boundaries presents legal problems that are usually solved by selling language or translation rights rather than national rights. Thus, Internet access across the European Union is relatively open because of the laws forbidding discrimination based on nationality, but the fact of publication in, say, France, limits the target market to those who read French.

Having agreed on the scope of the publication and the formats, the parties in a book agreement must then agree on royalty rates, the percentage of the gross retail price that will be paid to the author and the advance payment. This is difficult because the publisher must estimate the potential sales in each market and balance projected revenue against production costs. Royalties usually range between 10-12% of recommended retail price. An advance is usually 1/3 of first print run total royalties. For example, if a book has a print run of 5000 copies and will be sold at $14.95 and the author receives 10% royalties, the total sum payable to the author if all copies are sold is $7475 (10% x $14.95 x 5000). The advance in this instance would roughly be $2490. Advances vary greatly between books, with established authors commanding large advances.

Editorial Stage

Once the immediate commercial decisions are taken and the technical legal issues resolved, the author may be asked to improve the quality of the work through rewriting or smaller changes, and the staff will edit the work. Publishers may maintain a house style, and staff will copy edit to ensure that the work matches the style and grammatical requirements of each market. Editing may also involve structural changes and requests for more information. Some publishers employ fact checkers.


When a final text is agreed upon, the next phase is design. This may include artwork being commissioned or confirmation of layout. In publishing, the word "art" also indicates photographs. This process prepares the work for printing through processes such as typesetting, dust jacket composition, specification of paper quality, binding method and casing, and proofreading.

The activities of typesetting, page layout, the production of negatives, plates from the negatives and, for hardbacks, the preparation of brasses for the spine legend and imprint are now all computerized. Prepress


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computerization evolved mainly in about the last twenty years of the 20th century. If the work is to be distributed electronically, the final files are saved as formats appropriate to the target operating systems of the hardware used for reading.


The period between the 13th and 16th centuries saw the rise of a printdominated society, one that moved away from the Church's monopoly of information that existed during the manuscript book period. This was initially fueled by the reproduction of classic texts of antiquity. It was further fueled by the development of new kinds of books in science.

These factors led to the development of books as elements of propaganda and religious education. There were social and political and economic changes that made print important. Those changes might not have happened as quickly or perhaps at all without print.

On the academic front, the development of the printing press represented a revolution for communicating the latest hypotheses and research results to the academic community and supplemented what a scholar could do personally. But this improvement in the efficiency of communication created a challenge for libraries which have had to accommodate the weight and volume of literature.

Today, publishing academic journals and textbooks is a large part of an international industry. The shares of the major publishing companies are listed on national stock exchanges and management policies must satisfy the dividend expectations of international shareholders.


The book publishing industry has become a big business the world over. The Unit examined in great detail book publishing, right from its origin to its present state. The publishing terminologies and types of book papers were equally examined.


The reading culture of Nigerians especially, students are dying. This has negative effects on the book publishing business. Critically assess this statement in the light of the prevailing circumstances in Nigeria.



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Epstein, J (1987). Book Business: Publishing Past, Present, and Future. Place and name of publisher unknown.

Schiffrin, A. (2000). The Business of Books: How the International Conglomerates Took Over Publishing and Changed the Way We Read. Place and name of publisher unknown.

Ugrešić, D. (2003). Thank You for Not Reading. Place and name of publisher unknown.


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3.0Main Content





6.0Tutor-Marked Assignment

7.0References/Further Readings


This unit examines the following arms of the broadcast media:




At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

discuss television as a broadcast medium

discuss radio as broadcast medium.


3.1Radio: The First Broadcast

Telegraph and telephone were important predecessors of radio. Samuel Morse developed the telegraph in 1844 and it was a principal means of news and information. Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his telephone in 1876 and this invention gave birth to the concept of “broadcasting” i.e. sending of a single message as sound which can be simultaneously received by large numbers of people in different locations.

In Germany, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz successfully transmitted electromagnetic waves without any other form of conduction. Hertz’s name is adopted as the measure of all radio frequencies (i.e. MHz-Mega Hertz).


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In 1906, De Forest perfected the audio tube, which became the vacum tube, making possible the clear transmission of voice and music. On Xmas eve (1906), Reginald Fessenden made what is generally regarded as the first broadcast. Greater success came with the replacement of Fessenden’s primitive telephone microphone with De Forest’s audio tube, which offered for greater fidelity of sound.

A series of broadcasts followed and radio began to gain ground. In 1912, the sinking of the Titanic foregrounded the potential of wireless as a lifesaver when the rescue operation was coordinated by David Sarnoff of Marconi Wireless telegraphy. Much credit for the development of radio as a national entertainment, news and commercial medium goes to David Sarnoff. Sarnoff, as an assistant traffic manager in Marconi Company in 1918 and 1916, recognized the potential of radiotelephony long before others in the field did. He wrote:

I have in mind a plan of development which would make Radio a “household utility” in the same sense as the piano or phonograph. The idea is to bring music into the home by wireless.

In 1920, Westinghouse engineer Frank Conrad began broadcasting phonograph music over a transmitter in his Pittsburgh garage as part of his experiments in radiotelephony. The popularity of Conrad’s broadcasts prompted Westinghouse official to formalize the programming transmitted over station KDKA and stimulated a demand for receivers. The station began on Nov 2, 1920 with a broadcast of the results of the Harding-Cox presidential election. People soon flocked to local department stores to buy primitive crystal receivers. Other radio stations were established. A.T and T signed WEAF on the air but sold it to RCA in 1926. Out of that sale came NBC. NBC operated two networks until 1943 when one was sold, which became ABC. Two others, CBC and Mutual also were part of the development of early commercial radio. For noncommercial stations, the National Public radio began regular programming in 1971.

3.1.2 The Contribution of Hertz and Marconi

Heinrich Hertz, a German physicist in1888 made the sensational discovery of radio waves, a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths too long for our eyes to see, confirming Maxwell's ideas. He devised a transmitting oscillator, which radiated radio waves, and detected them using a metal loop with a gap at one side. When the loop was placed within the transmitter’s electromagnetic field, sparks were produced across the gap. This proved that electromagnetic waves could be sent out into space, and be remotely detected. These waves were


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known as ‘Hertzian Waves’ and Hertz managed to detect them across the length of his laboratory.

Another milestone was made by the Italian Guglielmo Marconi who was fascinated by Hertz’s discovery, and realised that if radio waves could be transmitted and detected over long distances, wireless telegraphy could be developed. He started experimenting in 1894 and set up rough aerials on opposite sides of the family garden. He managed to receive signals over a distance of 100 metres, and by the end of 1895, had extended the distance to over a mile. He approached the Italian Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs, informing them of his experiments. The Ministry was not interested and so his cousin, Henry Jameson-Davis arranged an interview with Nyilliam Preece, who was Engineer-in-Chief to the British Post Office.

He came to England in February 1896 and gave demonstrations in London at the General Post Office Building. His transmissions were detected 1.5 miles away, and on 2nd September at Salisbury plain the range was increased to 8 miles. In 1897 he obtained a patent for wireless telegraphy, and established the Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company at Chelmsford. The world’s first radio factory was opened there in 1898. On 11th May 1897 tests were carried out to establish that contacts were possible over water. A transmitter was set up at Lavernock Point, near Penarth and the transmissions were received on the other side of the Bristol Channel at the Island of Holm, a distance of 3.5 miles. The Daily Express was the first newspaper to obtain news by wireless telegraphy in August 1898, and in December of that year communication was set up between Queen Victoria’s Royal yacht, off Cowes and Osborne House. The Queen received regular bulletins on the Prince of Wales’ health, by radio, from the yacht, where he was convalescing.

Also in December of that year, wireless communication was set up between the East Goodwin light ship and the South Foeland lighthouse. On 3rd March 1899 Marconi obtained a lot of publicity when the first life was saved by wireless telegraphy, which was used to save a ship in distress in the North Sea. By the summer cross channel communication had been established and the first ocean newspaper published bulletins sent by wireless.

About this time Marconi began to develop tuned circuits for wireless transmission, so that a wireless can be tuned to a particular frequency, to remove all other transmissions except the one of interest. He patented this on 26th April 1900, under the name of ‘Tuned Syntonic Telegraphy’. On Thursday 12th December 1901, Marconi and his associates succeeded in transmitting a signal across the Atlantic Ocean. He sailed to Newfoundland with G.S. Kemp and P.W. Paget, and received a


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