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US Army Dictionary of Military Terms

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As Amended Through 23 January 2002

initial reserves — In amphibious operations, those supplies that normally are unloaded immediately following the assault waves; usually the supplies for the use of the beach organization, battalion landing teams, and other elements of regimental combat teams for the purpose of initiating and sustaining combat until higher supply installations are established. See also reserve supplies.

initial response force — The first unit, usually military police, on the scene of a terrorist incident. See also antiterrorism. (JP 3-07.2)

initial unloading period — (*) In amphibious operations, that part of the ship-to-shore movement in which unloading is primarily tactical in character and must be instantly responsive to landing force requirements. All elements intended to land during this period are serialized. See also general unloading period.

initiating directive — An order to a subordinate commander to conduct military operations as directed. It is issued by the unified commander, subunified commander, Service component commander, or joint force commander delegated overall responsibility for the operation. (JP 3-18)

initiation of procurement action — That point in time when the approved document requesting procurement and citing funds is forwarded to the procuring activity. See also procurement lead time.

injury — A term comprising such conditions as fractures, wounds, sprains, strains, dislocations, concussions, and compressions. In addition, it includes conditions resulting from extremes of temperature or prolonged exposure. Acute poisonings (except those due to contaminated food) resulting from exposure to a toxic or poisonous substance are also

classed as injuries. See also casualty; wounded.

inland petroleum distribution system — A multi-product petroleum pipeline designed to move bulk fuel forward in a theater of operation. (JP 4-01.6)

inland search and rescue region — The inland areas of the continental United States, except waters under the jurisdiction of the United States. See also search and rescue region.

inner transport area — In amphibious operations, an area as close to the landing beach as depth of water, navigational hazards, boat traffic, and enemy action permit, to which transports may move to expedite unloading. See also outer transport area; transport area.

innocent passage — The right of all ships to engage in continuous and expeditious surface passage through the territorial sea and archipelagic waters of foreign coastal states in a manner not prejudicial to its peace, good order, or security. Passage includes stopping and anchoring, but only if incidental to ordinary navigation or necessary by force majeure or distress, or for the purpose of rendering assistance to persons, ships, or aircraft in danger or distress.

in-place force — 1. A North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-assigned force that, in peacetime, is principally stationed in the designated combat zone of the NATO command to which it is committed. 2. Force within a combatant commander’s area of responsibility and under the combatant commander’s combatant command (command authority).

inshore patrol — (*) A naval defense patrol operating generally within a naval defense coastal area and comprising all elements of

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harbor defenses, the coastal lookout system, patrol craft supporting bases, aircraft, and Coast Guard stations.

inspection — In arms control, physical process of determining compliance with arms control measures.

installation — A grouping of facilities, located in the same vicinity, which support particular functions. Installations may be elements of a base. See also base; base complex.

installation commander — The individual responsible for all operations performed by an installation. See also antiterrorism; base commander; installation. (JP 3-07.2)

installation complex — In the Air Force, a combination of land and facilities comprised of a main installation and its noncontiguous properties (auxiliary air fields, annexes, and missile fields) that provide direct support to or are supported by that installation. Installation complexes may comprise two or more properties, e.g., a major installation, a minor installation, or a support site, each with its associated annex(es) or support property(ies). See also minor installation.

instructional mine — (*) An inert mine used for instruction and normally sectionalized for this purpose. See also inert mine.

instrument approach procedure — (*) A series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions from the beginning of the initial approach to a landing or to a point from which a landing may be made visually or the missed approach procedure is initiated.

instrument flight — (*) Flight in which the path and attitude of the aircraft are

controlled solely by reference to instruments.

instrument landing system — (*) A system of radio navigation intended to assist aircraft in landing which provides lateral and vertical guidance, which may include indications of distance from the optimum point of landing. Also called ILS.

instrument meteorological conditions —

Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling; less than minimums specified for visual meteorological conditions. Also called IMC. See also visual meteorological conditions. (JP 3-04.1)

in support — (*) An expression used to denote the task of providing artillery supporting fire to a formation or unit. Liaison and observation are not normally provided. See also at priority call; direct support.

in support of — Assisting or protecting another formation, unit, or organization while remaining under original control.

insurgency — (*) An organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through use of subversion and armed conflict.

insurgent — Member of a political party who rebels against established leadership. See also antiterrorism; counterinsurgency; insurgency. (JP 3-07.2)

integrated fire control system — A system that performs the functions of target acquisition, tracking, data computation, and engagement control, primarily using electronic means and assisted by electromechanical devices.

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integrated logistic support — A composite of all the support considerations necessary to assure the effective and economical support of a system for its life cycle. It is an integral part of all other aspects of system acquisition and operation. Also called ILS.

integrated materiel management — The exercise of total Department of Defenselevel management responsibility for a federal supply group or class, commodity, or item for a single agency. It normally includes computation of requirements, funding, budgeting, storing, issuing, cataloging, standardizing, and procuring functions. Also called IMM. See also materiel; materiel management. (JP 4-07)

integrated planning — In amphibious operations, the planning accomplished by commanders and staffs of corresponding echelons from parallel chains of command within the amphibious task force. See also amphibious operation; amphibious task force. (JP 3-02)

integrated priority list — A list of a combatant commander’s highest priority requirements, prioritized across Service and functional lines, defining shortfalls in key programs that, in the judgment of the combatant commander, adversely affect the capability of the combatant commander’s forces to accomplish their assigned mission. The integrated priority list provides the combatant commander’s recommendations for programming funds in the planning, programming, and budgeting system process. Also called IPL.

integrated staff — (*) A staff in which one officer only is appointed to each post on the establishment of the headquarters, irrespective of nationality and Service. See also multinational staff; joint staff; parallel staff; staff.

integrated tactical warning — See tactical warning.

integrated warfare — The conduct of military operations in any combat environment wherein opposing forces employ non-conventional weapons in combination with conventional weapons.

integration — 1. In force protection, the synchronized transfer of units into an operational commander’s force prior to mission execution. 2. The arrangement of military forces and their actions to create a force that operates by engaging as a whole. 3. In photography, a process by which the average radar picture seen on several scans of the time base may be obtained on a print, or the process by which several photographic images are combined into a single image. See also force protection. (JP 0-2)

intelligence — 1. The product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas. 2. Information and knowledge about an adversary obtained through observation, investigation, analysis, or understanding. See also acoustic intelligence; all-source intelligence; basic intelligence; civil defense intelligence; combat intelligence; communications intelligence; critical intelligence; current intelligence; departmental intelligence; domestic intelligence; electronic intelligence; electro-optical intelligence; foreign intelligence; foreign instrumentation signals intelligence; general military intelligence; human resources intelligence; imagery intelligence; joint intelligence; laser intelligence; measurement and signature intelligence; medical intelligence; merchant

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intelligence; military intelligence; national intelligence; nuclear intelligence; open-source intelligence; operational intelligence; photographic intelligence; political intelligence; radar intelligence; radiation intelligence; scientific and technical intelligence; security intelligence; strategic intelligence; tactical intelligence; target intelligence; technical intelligence; technical operational intelligence; terrain intelligence; unintentional radiation intelligence. (JP 2-0)

intelligence annex — A supporting document of an operation plan or order that provides detailed information on the enemy situation, assignment of intelligence tasks, and intelligence administrative procedures.

intelligence collection plan — A plan for gathering information from all available sources to meet an intelligence requirement. Specifically, a logical plan for transforming the essential elements of information into orders or requests to sources within a required time limit. See also intelligence cycle.

intelligence contingency funds —

Appropriated funds to be used for intelligence activities when the use of other funds is not applicable or would either jeopardize or impede the mission of the intelligence unit.

intelligence cycle — The process by which information is converted into intelligence and made available to users. There are six phases in the cycle: a. planning and direction — Determination of intelligence requirements, development of appropriate intelligence architecture, preparation of a collection plan, and issuance of orders and requests to information collection agencies. b. collection — Acquisition of information and the provision of this information to processing elements. c. processing and

exploitation — Conversion of collected information into forms suitable to the production of intelligence. d. analysis and production — Conversion of processed information into intelligence through the integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of all source data and the preparation of intelligence products in support of known or anticipated user requirements. e. dissemination and integration — Delivery of intelligence to users in a suitable form and the application of the intelligence to appropriate missions, tasks, and functions. f. evaluation and feedback — Continuous assessment of intelligence operations during each phase of the intelligence cycle to ensure that the commander’s intelligence requirements are being met. See also intelligence. (JP 2-0)

intelligence database — The sum of holdings of intelligence data and finished intelligence products at a given organization.

intelligence data handling systems —

Information systems that process and manipulate raw information and intelligence data as required. They are characterized by the application of general purpose computers, peripheral equipment, and automated storage and retrieval equipment for documents and photographs. While automation is a distinguishing characteristic of intelligence data handling systems, individual system components may be either automated or manually operated. Also called IDHS.

intelligence discipline — A well defined area of intelligence collection, processing, exploitation, and reporting using a specific category of technical or human resources. There are seven major disciplines: human intelligence, imagery intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence (communications intelligence, electronic intelligence, and foreign instrumentation

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signals intelligence), open-source intelligence, technical intelligence, a n d counterintelligence. See also counterintelligence; human intelligence; imagery intelligence; intelligence; measurement and signature intelligence; open-source intelligence; signals intelligence; technical intelligence.

(JP 2-0)

intelligence estimate — (*) The appraisal, expressed in writing or orally, of available intelligence relating to a specific situation or condition with a view to determining the courses of action open to the enemy or potential enemy and the order of probability of their adoption.

intelligence gathering — Collection of intelligence on other units or forces by own units or forces.

intelligence journal — A chronological log of intelligence activities covering a stated period, usually 24 hours. It is an index of reports and messages that have been received and transmitted, important events that have occurred, and actions taken. The journal is a permanent and official record.

intelligence operations — The variety of intelligence tasks that are carried out by various intelligence organizations and activities. Predominantly, it refers to either intelligence collection or intelligence production activities. When used in the context of intelligence collection activities, intelligence operations refer to collection, processing, exploitation, and reporting of information. When used in the context of intelligence production activities, it refers to collation, integration, interpretation, and analysis, leading to the dissemination of a finished product. (JP 2-0)

intelligence preparation of the battlespace

An analytical methodology employed to reduce uncertainties concerning the

enemy, environment, and terrain for all types of operations. Intelligence preparation of the battlespace builds an extensive database for each potential area in which a unit may be required to operate. The database is then analyzed in detail to determine the impact of the enemy, environment, and terrain on operations and presents it in graphic form. Intelligence preparation of the battlespace is a continuing process. Also called IPB. (JP 2-0)

intelligence-related activities — Those activities outside the consolidated defense intelligence program that: respond to operational commanders’ tasking for time-sensitive information on foreign entities; respond to national intelligence community tasking of systems whose primary mission is support to operating forces; train personnel for intelligence duties; provide an intelligence reserve; or are devoted to research and development of intelligence or related capabilities. (Specifically excluded are programs that are so closely integrated with a weapon system that their primary function is to provide immediate-use targeting data.)

intelligence report — A specific report of information, usually on a single item, made at any level of command in tactical operations and disseminated as rapidly as possible in keeping with the timeliness of the information. Also called INTREP.

intelligence reporting — The preparation and conveyance of information by any means. More commonly, the term is restricted to reports as they are prepared by the collector and as they are transmitted by the collector to the latter’s headquarters and by this component of the intelligence structure to one or more intelligenceproducing components. Thus, even in this limited sense, reporting embraces both collection and dissemination. The term is

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applied to normal and specialist intelligence reports. See also normal intelligence reports; specialist intelligence report.

intelligence requirement — 1. Any subject, general or specific, upon which there is a need for the collection of information, or the production of intelligence. 2. A requirement for intelligence to fill a gap in the command’s knowledge or understanding of the battlespace or threat forces. See also battlespace; intelligence; priority intelligence requirements.

(JP 2-0)

intelligence source — The means or system that can be used to observe and record information relating to the condition, situation, or activities of a targeted location, organization, or individual. An intelligence source can be people, documents, equipment, or technical sensors. See also intelligence; source. (JP 2-0)

intelligence subject code — A system of subject and area references to index the information contained in intelligence reports as required by a general intelligence document reference service.

intelligence summary — A specific report providing a summary of items of intelligence at frequent intervals. Also called INTSUM. See also intelligence.

intelligence system — Any formal or informal system to manage data gathering, to obtain and process the data, to interpret the data, and to provide reasoned judgments to decision makers as a basis for action. The term is not limited to intelligence organizations or services but includes any system, in all its parts, that accomplishes the listed tasks.

intensity factor — (*) A multiplying factor used in planning activities to evaluate the

foreseeable intensity or the specific nature of an operation in a given area for a given period of time. It is applied to the standard day of supply in order to calculate the combat day of supply.

intensity mine circuit — (*) Acircuit whose actuation is dependent on the field strength reaching a level differing by some pre-set minimum from that experienced by the mine when no ships are in the vicinity.

intensive management — The continuous process by which the supported and supporting commanders, the Services, transportation component commands, and appropriate Defense agencies ensure that movement data in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System time-phased force and deployment data for the initial days of deployment and/or mobilization are current to support immediate execution.

intention — An aim or design (as distinct from capability) to execute a specified course of action.

interagency coordination — Within the context of Department of Defense involvement, the coordination that occurs between elements of Department of Defense, and engaged US Government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and regional and international organizations for the purpose of accomplishing an objective. See also international organization; nongovernmental organizations. (JP 3-57)

interceptor — (*) A manned aircraft utilized for identification and/or engagement of airborne objects.

intercept point — (*) The point to which an airborne vehicle is vectored or guided to complete an interception.

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intercept receiver — (*) Areceiver designed to detect and provide visual and/or aural indication of electromagnetic emissions occurring within the particular portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to which it is tuned.

inter-chart relationship diagram — (*) A diagram on a map or chart showing names and/or numbers of adjacent sheets in the same (or related) series. Also called index to adjoining sheets. See also map index.

interconnection — The linking together of interoperable systems.

intercount dormant period — (*) In naval mine warfare, the period after the actuation of a ship counter before it is ready to receive another actuation.

interdepartmental or agency support —

Provision of logistic and/or administrative support in services or materiel by one or more Military Services to one or more departments or agencies of the United States Government (other than military) with or without reimbursement. See also international logistic support; inter-Service support; support.

interdepartmental intelligence — Integrated departmental intelligence that is required by departments and agencies of the United States Government for the execution of their missions but which transcends the exclusive competence of a single department or agency to produce.

interdiction — An action to divert, disrupt, delay, or destroy the enemy’s surface military potential before it can be used effectively against friendly forces. See also air interdiction.

interface — A boundary or point common to two or more similar or dissimilar command and control systems, sub-systems, or other

entities against which or at which necessary information flow takes place.

interim financing — Advance payments, partial payments, loans, discounts, advances, and commitments in connection therewith; guarantees of loans, discounts, advances, and commitments in connection therewith; and any other type of financing necessary for both performance and termination of contracts.

interim overhaul — An availability for the accomplishment of necessary repairs and urgent alterations at a naval shipyard or other shore-based repair activity, normally scheduled halfway through the established regular overhaul cycle.

inter-look dormant period — (*) In mine warfare, the time interval after each look in a multi-look mine, during which the firing mechanism will not register.

intermediate approach — (*) That part of an instrument approach procedure in which aircraft configuration, speed, and positioning adjustments are made. It blends the initial approach segment into the final approach segment. It begins at the intermediate fix or point and ends at the final approach fix or point.

Intermediate Force Planning Level — The force level established during Planning Force development to depict the buildup from the Current Force to the Planning Force. The Intermediate Force Planning Level is insufficient to carry out strategy with a reasonable assurance of success and consequently cannot be referred to as the Planning Force. See also current force; force; Programmed Forces.

intermediate maintenance (field) —

Maintenance that is the responsibility of and performed by designated maintenance activities for direct support of using

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organizations. Its phases normally consist of: a. calibration, repair, or replacement of damaged or unserviceable parts, components, or assemblies; b. the emergency manufacture of nonavailable parts; and c. providing technical assistance to using organizations.

intermediate marker (land mine warfare)

— (*) A marker, natural, artificial or specially installed, which is used as a point of reference between the landmark and the minefield.

intermediate objective — (*) In land warfare, an area or feature between the line of departure and an objective which must be seized and/or held.

intermediate-range bomber aircraft — A bomber designed for a tactical operating radius of between 1,000 to 2,500 nautical miles at design gross weight and design bomb load.

intermediate staging base — A temporary location used to stage forces prior to inserting the forces into the host nation. Also called ISB. See also base; staging base. (JP 3-07.5)

intermittent arming device — (*) A device included in a mine so that it will be armed only at set times.

intermittent illumination — (*) A type of fire in which illuminating projectiles are fired at irregular intervals.

intermodal — Type of international freight system that permits transshipping among sea, highway, rail, and air modes of transportation through use of American National Standards Institute and International Organization for Standardization containers, line-haul assets, and handling equipment. See also

American National Standards Institute;

International Organization for Standardization. (JP 4-01.7)

intermodal support equipment — Fixed and deployable assets required to assist container operations throughout the intermodal container system. Included are straddle cranes, chassis, rough terrain container handlers, container cranes and spreader bars. See also intermodal. (JP 4-01.7)

intermodal systems — Specialized transportation facilities, assets, and handling procedures designed to create a seamless transportation system by combining multimodal operations and facilities during the shipment of cargo. See also intermodal; transportation system.

(JP 4-01)

internal audience — US military members and civilian employees and their immediate families. One of the audiences comprising the concept of “publics.” See also external audience.

internal defense and development — The full range of measures taken by a nation to promote its growth and to protect itself from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency. It focuses on building viable institutions (political, economic, social, and military) that respond to the needs of society. Also called IDAD. See also foreign internal defense. (JP 3-07.1)

internal information — See command information.

internally displaced person — Any person who has left their residence by reason of real or imagined danger but has not left the territory of their own country. (JP 3-07.6)

internal radiation — (*) Nuclear radiation (alpha and beta particles and gamma

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radiation) resulting from radioactive substances in the body.

internal security — The state of law and order prevailing within a nation.

internal waters — All waters, other than lawfully claimed archipelagic waters, landward of the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured. Archipelagic states may also delimit internal waters consistent with the 1982 convention on the law of the sea. All states have complete sovereignty over their internal waters.

international arms control organization —

An appropriately constituted organization established to supervise and verify the implementation of arms control measures.

International Atomic Time — The time reference scale established by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures on the basis of atomic clock readings from various laboratories around the world. Also called

TAI.

international call sign — (*) A call sign assigned in accordance with the provisions of the International Telecommunications Union to identify a radio station. The nationality of the radio station is identified by the first or the first two characters. (When used in visual signaling, international call signs are referred to as “signal letters.”) See also call sign.

International Convention for Safe Containers — A convention held in Geneva, Switzerland, on 2 Dec 1972, which resulted in setting standard safety requirements for containers moving in international transport. These requirements were ratified by the United States on 3 January 1978. Also called CSC. (JP 4-01.7)

international cooperative logistics — (*)

Cooperation and mutual support in the field

of logistics through the coordination of policies, plans, procedures, development activities, and the common supply and exchange of goods and services arranged on the basis of bilateral and multilateral agreements with appropriate cost reimbursement provisions.

international date line — (*) The line coinciding approximately with the anti-meridian of Greenwich, modified to avoid certain habitable land. In crossing this line there is a date change of one day. Also called date line.

international identification code — (*) In railway terminology, a code which identifies a military train from point of origin to final destination. The code consists of a series of figures, letters, or symbols indicating the priority, country of origin, day of departure, national identification code number, and country of destination of the train.

international loading gauge (GIC) — (*)

The loading gauge upon which international railway agreements are based. A load whose dimensions fall within the limits of this gauge may move without restriction on most of the railways of Continental Western Europe. GIC is an abbreviation for “gabarit international de chargement,” formerly called PPI.

international logistics — The negotiating, planning, and implementation of supporting logistic arrangements between nations, their forces, and agencies. It includes furnishing logistic support (major end items, materiel, and/or services) to, or receiving logistic support from, one or more friendly foreign governments, international organizations, or military forces, with or without reimbursement. It also includes planning and actions related to the intermeshing of a significant element, activity, or component of the military logistic systems or

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procedures of the United States with those of one or more foreign governments, international organizations, or military forces on a temporary or permanent basis. It includes planning and actions related to the utilization of United States logistic policies, systems, and/or procedures to meet requirements of one or more foreign governments, international organizations, or forces.

international logistic support — The provision of military logistic support by one participating nation to one or more participating nations, either with or without reimbursement. See also interdepartmental or agency support; inter-Service support; support.

international military education and training — Formal or informal instruction provided to foreign military students, units, and forces on a nonreimbursable (grant) basis by offices or employees of the United States, contract technicians, and contractors. Instruction may include correspondence courses; technical, educational, or informational publications; and media of all kinds. Also called IMET. See also

United States Military Service funded foreign training.

international narcotics activities — Those activities outside the United States that produce, transfer, or sell narcotics or other substances controlled in accordance with Title 21, “Food and Drugs” — United States Code, sections 811 and 812. (JP 3-07.4)

international organization — Organizations with global mandates, generally funded by contributions from national governments. Examples include the International Committee of the Red Cross, the International Organization for Migration, and United Nation agencies. Also called

IO. See also nongovernmental organizations. (JP 3-07.6)

International Organization for Standardization — A worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 100 countries, one from each country. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a nongovernmental organization, established to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological, and economic activity. ISO’s work results in international agreements which are published as international standards. Also called ISO.

interned — See missing.

interocular distance — The distance between the centers of rotation of the eyeballs of an individual or between the oculars of optical instruments.

interoperability — (*) 1. The ability of systems, units, or forces to provide services to and accept services from other systems, units, or forces and to use the services so exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together. 2. (DOD only) The condition achieved among communications-electronics systems or items of communications-electronics equipment when information or services can be exchanged directly and satisfactorily between them and/or their users. The degree of interoperability should be defined when referring to specific cases.

interoperation — The use of interoperable systems, units, or forces.

interpretability — (*) Suitability of imagery for interpretation with respect to answering adequately requirements on a given type of target in terms of quality and scale. a. poor — Imagery is unsuitable for

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