Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:

US Army Dictionary of Military Terms

2.2 Mб

As Amended Through 23 January 2002

also noncombatant evacuation operations.

(JP 3-07.5)

noncontiguous facility — A facility for which the Service indicated has operating responsibility, but which is not located on, or in the immediate vicinity of, a base complex of that Service. Its area includes only that actually occupied by the facility, plus the minimum surrounding area necessary for close-in security. See also base complex.

nondeferrable issue demand — Issue demand related to specific periods of time that will not exist after the close of those periods, even though not satisfied during the period.

nondeployable account — An account where Reservists (officer and enlisted), either in units or individually, are assigned to a reserve component category or a training/retired category when the individual has not completed initial active duty for training or its equivalent. Reservists in a nondeployable account are not considered as trained strength assigned to units or mobilization positions and are not deployable overseas on land with those units or mobilization positions. See also training pipeline.

nondestructive electronic warfare — Those electronic warfare actions, not including employment of wartime reserve modes, that deny, disrupt, or deceive rather than damage or destroy. See also electronic warfare.

(JP 3-51)

nonexpendable supplies and materiel —

Supplies not consumed in use that retain their original identity during the period of use, such as weapons, machines, tools, and equipment.

nonfixed medical treatment facility — A medical treatment facility designed to be

moved from place to place, including medical treatment facilities afloat.

nongovernmental organizations —

Transnational organizations of private citizens that maintain a consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. Nongovernmental organizations may be professional associations, foundations, multinational businesses, or simply groups with a common interest in humanitarian assistance activities (development and relief). “Nongovernmental organizations” is a term normally used by non-United States organizations. Also called NGOs. (JP 1-06)

nonhostile casualty — A person who becomes a casualty due to circumstances not directly attributable to hostile action or terrorist activity. Casualties due to the elements, self-inflicted wounds, and combat fatigue are nonhostile casualties. Also called NHCS. See also casualty; casualty type; hostile casualty.

nonlethal weapons — Weapons that are explicitly designed and primarily employed so as to incapacitate personnel or material, while minimizing fatalities, permanent injury to personnel, and undesired damage to property and the environment. a. Unlike conventional lethal weapons that destroy their targets through blast, penetration, and fragmentation, nonlethal weapons employ means other than gross physical destruction to prevent the target from functioning. b. Nonlethal weapons are intended to have one, or both, of the following characteristics: (1) They have relatively reversible effects on personnel or materiel.

(2) They affect objects differently within their area of influence.

non-linear approach — (*) In approach and landing systems, a final approach in which the nominal flight path is not a straight line.


JP 1-02

As Amended Through 23 January 2002

nonorganic transportation requirement —

Unit personnel and cargo for which the transportation source must be an outside agency, normally a component of US Transportation Command.

nonpersistent agent — A chemical agent that when released dissipates and/or loses its ability to cause casualties after 10 to 15 minutes. (JP 3-11)

nonprecision approach — Radar-controlled approach or an approach flown by reference to navigation aids in which glide slope information is not available. See also final approach; precision approach. (JP3-04.1)

nonprior service personnel — Individuals without any prior military service, who have not completed basic inactive duty training, and who receive a commission in or enlist directly into an Armed Force of the United States.

nonrecurring demand — A request by an authorized requisitioner to satisfy a materiel requirement known to be a one-time occurrence. This materiel is required to provide initial stockage allowances, to meet planned program requirements, or to satisfy a one-time project or maintenance requirement. Nonrecurring demands normally will not be considered by the supporting supply system in the development of demand-based elements of the requirements computation.

non-registered publication — (*) A publication which bears no register number and for which periodic accounting is not required.

nonscheduled units — Units of the landing force held in readiness for landing during the initial unloading period, but not included in either scheduled or on-call waves. This category usually includes certain of the combat support units and most of the

combat service support units with higher echelon (division and above) reserve units of the landing force. Their landing is directed when the need ashore can be predicted with a reasonable degree of accuracy.

non-self-sustaining containership — A containership that does not have a built-in capability to load or off-load containers, and requires a port crane or craneship service. Also called NSSCS. See also containership;self-sustainingcontainership.

(JP 4-01.7)

nonstandard item — An item of supply determined by standardization action as not authorized for procurement.

nonstandard unit — A force requirement identified in a time-phased force and deployment data for which movement characteristics have not been described in the type unit characteristics file. The planner is required to submit detailed movement characteristics for these units.

nonstocked item — An item that does not meet the stockage criteria for a given activity, and therefore is not stocked at the particular activity.

nonstrategic nuclear forces — Those nuclear-capable forces located in an operational area with a capability to employ nuclear weapons by land, sea, or air forces against opposing forces, supporting installations, or facilities. Such forces may be employed, when authorized by competent authority, to support operations that contribute to the accomplishment of the commander’s mission within the theater of operations.

non-submarine contact chart — (*) A special naval chart, at a scale of 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000, showing bathymetry, bottom characteristics, wreck data, and


As Amended Through 23 January 2002

non-submarine contact data for coastal and off-shore waters. It is designed for use in conducting submarine and antisubmarine warfare operations. Also called non-sub contact chart.

non-unit record — A time-phased force and deployment data file entry for non-unit- related cargo and personnel. Characteristics include using and providing organization, type of movement, routing data, cargo category, weight, volume, area required, and number of personnel requiring transportation.

non-unit-related cargo — All equipment and supplies requiring transportation to an operational area, other than those identified as the equipment or accompanying supplies of a specific unit (e.g., resupply, military support for allies, and support for nonmilitary programs, such as civil relief). Also called NURC.

non-unit-related personnel — All personnel requiring transportation to or from an operational area, other than those assigned to a specific unit (e.g., filler personnel; replacements; temporary duty/temporary additional duty personnel; civilians; medical evacuees; and retrograde personnel). Also called NRP or NUP.

non-US forces — Includes all armed forces of states other than US forces. US forces may act in defense of non-US forces when so designated by US National Command Authorities.

normal charge — Charge employing a standard amount of propellant to fire a gun under ordinary conditions, as compared with a reduced charge. See also reduced charge.

normal impact effect — See cardinal point effect.

normal intelligence reports — A category of reports used in the dissemination of intelligence, conventionally used for the immediate dissemination of individual items of intelligence. See also intelligence reporting; specialist intelligence report.

normal lighting — (*) Lighting of vehicles as prescribed or authorized by the law of a given country without restrictions for military reasons. See also reduced lighting.

normal operations — Generally and collectively, the broad functions that a combatant commander undertakes when assigned responsibility for a given geographic or functional area. Except as otherwise qualified in certain unified command plan paragraphs that relate to particular commands, “normal operations” of a combatant commander include: planning and execution of operations throughout the range of military operations; planning and conduct of cold war activities; planning and administration of military assistance; and maintaining the relationships and exercising the directive or coordinating authority prescribed in JP 0-2 and JP 4-01.

North American Aerospace Defense Command — A bi-national command of the US and Canada that provides aerospace surveillance, warning and assessment of aerospace attack, and maintains the sovereignty of US and Canadian airspace. Also called NORAD.

no-strike list — A list of geographic areas, complexes, or installations not planned for capture or destruction. Attacking these may violate the law of armed conflict or interfere with friendly relations with indigenous personnel or governments. Also called

NSL. See also law of armed conflict.

(JP 3-60)


JP 1-02

As Amended Through 23 January 2002

notice to airmen — A notice containing information concerning the establishment, condition, or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedures, or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations. Also called NOTAM.

notional ship — A theoretical or average ship of any one category used in transportation planning (e.g., a Liberty ship for dry cargo; a T-2 tanker for bulk petroleum, oils, and lubricants; a personnel transport of 2,400 troop spaces).

not mission capable, maintenance —

Material condition indicating that systems and equipment are not capable of performing any of their assigned missions because of maintenance requirements. Also called NMCM. See also not mission capable, supply.

not mission capable, supply — Material condition indicating that systems and equipment are not capable of performing any of their assigned missions because of maintenance work stoppage due to a supply shortage. Also called NMCS. See also not mission capable, maintenance.

not seriously injured — The casualty status of a person whose injury may or may not require hospitalization; medical authority does not classify as very seriously injured, seriously injured, or incapacitating illness or injury; and the person can communicate with the next of kin. Also called NSI. See also casualty status.

no-wind position — See air position.

nuclear accident — See nuclear weapon(s) accident.

nuclear airburst — (*) The explosion of a nuclear weapon in the air, at a height greater

than the maximum radius of the fireball. See also types of burst.

nuclear, biological, and chemical-capable nation — A nation that has the capability to produce and employ one or more types of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons across the full range of military operations and at any level of war in order to achieve political and military objectives. (JP 3-11)

nuclear, biological, and chemical conditions

See nuclear, biological, and chemical environment. (JP 3-11)

nuclear, biological, and chemical defense

Defensive measures that enable friendly forces to survive, fight, and win against enemy use of nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) weapons and agents. US forces apply NBC defensive measures before and during integrated warfare. In integrated warfare, opposing forces employ nonconventional weapons along with conventional weapons (NBC weapons are nonconventional). See also integrated warfare. (JP 3-11)

nuclear, biological, and chemical environment — Environments in which there is deliberate or accidental employment, or threat of employment, of nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons; deliberate or accidental attacks or contamination with toxic industrial materials, including toxic industrial chemicals; or deliberate or accidental attacks or contamination with radiological (radioactive) materials. See also contamination. (JP 3-11)

nuclear bonus effects — (*) Desirable damage or casualties produced by the effects from friendly nuclear weapons that cannot be accurately calculated in targeting as the uncertainties involved preclude


As Amended Through 23 January 2002

depending on them for a militarily significant result.

nuclear burst — See types of burst.

nuclear certifiable — (*) Indicates a unit or vehicle possessing the potential of passing functional tests and inspections of all normal and emergency systems affecting the nuclear weapons.

nuclear certified — See nuclear certified delivery unit; nuclear certified delivery vehicle.

nuclear certified delivery unit — (*) Any level of organization and support elements which are capable of executing nuclear missions in accordance with appropriate bilateral arrangements and NATO directives. See also nuclear delivery unit.

nuclear certified delivery vehicle — (*) A delivery vehicle whose compatibility with a nuclear weapon has been certified by the applicable nuclear power through formal procedures. See also nuclear delivery vehicle.

nuclear cloud — (*) An all-inclusive term for the volume of hot gases, smoke, dust, and other particulate matter from the nuclear bomb itself and from its environment, which is carried aloft in conjunction with the rise of the fireball produced by the detonation of the nuclear weapon.

nuclear collateral damage — Undesired damage or casualties produced by the effects from friendly nuclear weapons.

nuclear column — (*) A hollow cylinder of water and spray thrown up from an underwater burst of a nuclear weapon, through which the hot, high-pressure gases formed in the explosion are vented to the atmosphere. A somewhat similar column

of dirt is formed in an underground explosion.

nuclear commitment — (*) A statement by a NATO member that specific forces have been committed or will be committed to NATO in a nuclear only or dual capable role.

nuclear contact surface burst — An explosion of a nuclear weapon whose center of energy is at the surface of land or water.

nuclear coordination — A broad term encompassing all the actions involved with planning nuclear strikes, including liaison between commanders, for the purpose of satisfying support requirements or because of the extension of weapons effects into the territory of another.

nuclear damage — (*) 1. Light Damage

— Damage which does not prevent the immediate use of equipment or installations for which it was intended. Some repair by the user may be required to make full use of the equipment or installations. 2.

Moderate Damage — Damage which prevents the use of equipment or installations until extensive repairs are made. 3. Severe Damage — Damage which prevents use of equipment or installations permanently.

nuclear damage assessment — (*) The determination of the damage effect to the population, forces, and resources resulting from actual nuclear attack. It is performed during and after an attack. The operational significance of the damage is not evaluated in this assessment.

nuclear defense — (*) The methods, plans, and procedures involved in establishing and exercising defensive measures against the effects of an attack by nuclear weapons or radiological warfare agents. It encompasses


JP 1-02

As Amended Through 23 January 2002

both the training for, and the implementation of, these methods, plans, and procedures. See also nuclear, biological, and chemical defense; radiological defense.

nuclear delivery unit — (*) Any level of organization capable of employing a nuclear weapon system or systems when the weapon or weapons have been released by proper authority.

nuclear delivery vehicle — (*) That portion of the weapon system which provides the means of delivery of a nuclear weapon to the target.

nuclear detonation detection and reporting system — (*) A system deployed to provide surveillance coverage of critical friendly target areas, and indicate place, height of burst, yield, and ground zero of nuclear detonations. Also called NUDETS.

nuclear dud — A nuclear weapon that, when launched at or emplaced on a target, fails to provide any explosion of that part of the weapon designed to produce the nuclear yield.

nuclear energy — All forms of energy released in the course of a nuclear fission or nuclear transformation.

nuclear exoatmospheric burst — The explosion of a nuclear weapon above the sensible atmosphere (above 120 kilometers) where atmospheric interaction is minimal. See also types of burst.

nuclear incident — An unexpected event involving a nuclear weapon, facility, or component, resulting in any of the following, but not constituting a nuclear weapon(s) accident: a. an increase in the possibility of explosion or radioactive contamination; b. errors committed in the

assembly, testing, loading, or transportation of equipment, and/or the malfunctioning of equipment and materiel which could lead to an unintentional operation of all or part of the weapon arming and/or firing sequence, or which could lead to a substantial change in yield, or increased dud probability; and c. any act of God, unfavorable environment, or condition resulting in damage to the weapon, facility, or component.

nuclear intelligence — Intelligence derived from the collection and analysis of radiation and other effects resulting from radioactive sources. Also called NUCINT. See also intelligence. (JP 2-0)

nuclear logistic movement — The transport of nuclear weapons in connection with supply or maintenance operations. Under certain specified conditions, combat aircraft may be used for such movements.

nuclear nation — (*) Military nuclear powers and civil nuclear powers.

nuclear parity — A condition at a given point in time when opposing forces possess nuclear offensive and defensive systems approximately equal in overall combat effectiveness.

nuclear planning system — A system composed of personnel, directives, and electronic data processing systems to directly support geographic nuclear combatant commanders in developing, maintaining, and disseminating nuclear operation plans.

nuclear proximity-surface burst — An explosion of a nuclear weapon at a height less than the maximum radius of its fireball, but low enough to facilitate cratering and/ or the propagation of a shock wave into the ground.


As Amended Through 23 January 2002

nuclear radiation — (*) Particulate and electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei in various nuclear processes. The important nuclear radiations, from the weapon standpoint, are alpha and beta particles, gamma rays, and neutrons. All nuclear radiations are ionizing radiations, but the reverse is not true; X-rays for example, are included among ionizing radiations, but they are not nuclear radiations since they do not originate from atomic nuclei.

nuclear reactor — A facility in which fissile material is used in a self-supporting chain reaction (nuclear fission) to produce heat and/or radiation for both practical application and research and development.

nuclear round — See complete round.

nuclear safety line — (*) A line selected, if possible, to follow well-defined topographical features and used to delineate levels of protective measures, degrees of damage or risk to friendly troops, and/or to prescribe limits to which the effects of friendly weapons may be permitted to extend.

nuclear stalemate — A concept that postulates a situation wherein the relative strength of opposing nuclear forces results in mutual deterrence against employment of nuclear forces.

nuclear strike warning — (*) A warning of impending friendly or suspected enemy nuclear attack.

nuclear support — The use of nuclear weapons against hostile forces in support of friendly air, land, and naval operations. See also immediate nuclear support; preplanned nuclear support.

nuclear transmutation — Artificially induced modification (nuclear reaction) of

the constituents of certain nuclei, thus giving rise to different nuclides.

nuclear underground burst — (*) The explosion of a nuclear weapon in which the center of the detonation lies at a point beneath the surface of the ground. See also types of burst.

nuclear underwater burst — (*) The explosion of a nuclear weapon in which the center of the detonation lies at a point beneath the surface of the water. See also types of burst.

nuclear vulnerability assessment — (*) The estimation of the probable effect on population, forces, and resources from a hypothetical nuclear attack. It is performed predominantly in the preattack period; however, it may be extended to the transattack or postattack periods.

nuclear warfare — (*) Warfare involving the employment of nuclear weapons. See also postattack period; transattack period.

nuclear warning message — A warning message that must be disseminated to all affected friendly forces any time a nuclear weapon is to be detonated if effects of the weapon will have impact upon those forces.

nuclear weapon — (*) A complete assembly (i.e., implosion type, gun type, or thermonuclear type), in its intended ultimate configuration which, upon completion of the prescribed arming, fusing, and firing sequence, is capable of producing the intended nuclear reaction and release of energy.

nuclear weapon degradation — The degeneration of a nuclear warhead to such an extent that the anticipated nuclear yield is lessened.


JP 1-02

As Amended Through 23 January 2002

nuclear weapon employment time — (*)

The time required for delivery of a nuclear weapon after the decision to fire has been made.

nuclear weapon exercise — (*) An operation not directly related to immediate operational readiness. It includes removal of a weapon from its normal storage location, preparing for use, delivery to an employment unit, and the movement in a ground training exercise, to include loading aboard an aircraft or missile and return to storage. It may include any or all of the operations listed above, but does not include launching or flying operations. Typical exercises include aircraft generation exercises, ground readiness exercises, ground tactical exercises, and various categories of inspections designed to evaluate the capability of the unit to perform its prescribed mission. See also immediate operational readiness; nuclear weapon maneuver.

nuclear weapon maneuver — (*) An operation not directly related to immediate operational readiness. It may consist of all those operations listed for a nuclear weapon exercise and is extended to include flyaway in combat aircraft, but does not include expenditure of the weapon. Typical maneuvers include nuclear operational readiness maneuvers and tactical air operations. See also immediate operational readiness; nuclear weapon exercise.

nuclear weapon(s) accident — An unexpected event involving nuclear weapons or radiological nuclear weapon components that results in any of the following; a. accidental or unauthorized launching, firing, or use by United States forces or United States supported allied forces of a nuclear-capable weapon system that could create the risk of an outbreak of war; b. nuclear detonation; c. nonnuclear

detonation or burning of a nuclear weapon or radiological nuclear weapon component; d. radioactive contamination; e. seizure, theft, loss, or destruction of a nuclear weapon or radiological nuclear weapon component, including jettisoning; and f. public hazard, actual or implied.

nuclear weapons state — See military nuclear power.

nuclear weapons surety — Materiel, personnel, and procedures that contribute to the security, safety, and reliability of nuclear weapons and to the assurance that there will be no nuclear weapon accidents, incidents, unauthorized weapon detonations, or degradation in performance at the target.

nuclear yields — The energy released in the detonation of a nuclear weapon, measured in terms of the kilotons or megatons of trinitrotoluene required to produce the same energy release. Yields are categorized as follows:

very low — less than 1 kiloton; low — 1 kiloton to 10 kilotons;

medium — over 10 kilotons to 50 kilotons; high — over 50 kilotons to 500 kilotons; very high — over 500 kilotons.

See also nominal weapon; subkiloton weapon.

nuisance minefield — (*) A minefield laid to delay and disorganize the enemy and to hinder the use of an area or route. See also minefield.

number . . . in (out) — (*) In artillery, term used to indicate a change in status of weapon number _______________.

numbered beach — In amphibious operations, a subdivision of a colored beach, designated for the assault landing of a battalion landing team or similarly sized


As Amended Through 23 January 2002

unit, when landed as part of a larger force.

units for the purpose of prosecuting specific

(JP 3-02)

naval operations. See also fleet.

numbered fleet — A major tactical unit of

numbered wave — See wave.

the Navy immediately subordinate to a


major fleet command and comprising

numerical scale — See scale.

various task forces, elements, groups, and



JP 1-02

As Amended Through 23 January 2002


objective — 1. The clearly defined, decisive, and attainable goals towards which every military operation should be directed. 2. The specific target of the action taken (for example, a definite terrain feature, the seizure or holding of which is essential to the commander’s plan, or, an enemy force or capability without regard to terrain features). See also target. (JP 3-0)

objective area — (*) A defined geographical area within which is located an objective to be captured or reached by the military forces. This area is defined by competent authority for purposes of command and control. Also called OA.

objective force level — The level of military forces that needs to be attained within a finite time frame and resource level to accomplish approved military objectives, missions, or tasks. See also military requirement.

obligated reservist — An individual who has a statutory requirement imposed by the Military Selective Service Act of 1967 or Section 651, Title 10, United States Code, to serve on active duty in the armed forces or to serve while not on active duty in a Reserve Component for a period not to exceed that prescribed by the applicable statute.

oblique air photograph — (*) An air photograph taken with the camera axis directed between the horizontal and vertical planes. Commonly referred to as an “oblique.” a. High Oblique. One in which the apparent horizon appears. b. Low Oblique. One in which the apparent horizon does not appear.

oblique air photograph strip —

Photographic strip composed of oblique air photographs.

obliquity — The characteristic in wide-angle or oblique photography that portrays the terrain and objects at such an angle and range that details necessary for interpretation are seriously masked or are at a very small scale, rendering interpretation difficult or impossible.

observation helicopter — (*) Helicopter used primarily for observation and reconnaissance, but which may be used for other roles.

observation post — (*) A position from which military observations are made, or fire directed and adjusted, and which possesses appropriate communications; may be airborne. Also called OP.

observed fire — (*) Fire for which the point of impact or burst can be seen by an observer. The fire can be controlled and adjusted on the basis of observation. See also fire.

observed fire procedure — (*) A standardized procedure for use in adjusting indirect fire on a target.

observer-target line — (*) An imaginary straight line from the observer/spotter to the target. See also spotting line.

observer-target range — The distance along an imaginary straight line from the observer or spotter to the target.

obstacle — Any obstruction designed or employed to disrupt, fix, turn, or block the movement of an opposing force, and to impose additional losses in personnel, time, and equipment on the opposing force. Obstacles can be natural, manmade, or a combination of both. (JP 3-15)


Соседние файлы в предмете Английский язык