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US Army Dictionary of Military Terms

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As Amended Through 23 January 2002

mission-essential materiel — 1. That materiel authorized and available to combat, combat support, combat service support, and combat readiness training forces in order to accomplish their assigned missions. 2. For the purpose of sizing organic industrial facilities, that Service-designated materiel authorized to combat, combat support, combat service support, and combat readiness training forces and activities, including Reserve and National Guard activities, that is required to support approved emergency and/or war plans, and where the materiel is used to: a. destroy the enemy or the enemy’s capacity to continue war; b. provide battlefield protection of personnel; c. communicate under war conditions; d. detect, locate, or maintain surveillance over the enemy; e. provide combat transportation and support of men and materiel; and f. support training functions. Mission-essential materiel should also be suitable for employment under emergency plans to meet the purposes enumerated above.

mission needs statement — A formatted non-system-specific statement containing operational capability needs and written in broad operational terms. It describes required operational capabilities and constraints to be studied during the Concept Exploration and Definition Phase of the Requirements Generation Process. Also called MNS.

mission-oriented items — Items for which requirements computations are based upon the assessment of enemy capabilities expressed as a known or estimated quantity of total targets to be destroyed. See also combination mission/level of effort-oriented items; level of effort-oriented items.

mission-oriented protective posture — A flexible system of protection against nuclear, biological, and chemical

contamination. This posture requires personnel to wear only that protective clothing and equipment (mission-oriented protective posture gear) appropriate to the threat level, work rate imposed by the mission, temperature, and humidity. Also called MOPP. See also mission-oriented protective posture gear. (JP 3-11)

mission-oriented protective posture gear —

Military term for individual protective equipment including suit, boots, gloves, mask with hood, first aid treatments, and decontamination kits issued to soldiers. Also called MOPP gear. See also decontamination; mission-oriented protective posture. (JP 3-11)

mission review report (photographic interpretation) — An intelligence report containing information on all targets covered by one photographic sortie.

mission specific data sets — Further densification of global geospatial foundation data. Information created to support specific operations, operation plans, training, or system development. Information conforms to established Department of Defense data specifications. Also called MSDS. See also geospatial information and services. (JP 2-03)

mission type order — 1. Order issued to a lower unit that includes the accomplishment of the total mission assigned to the higher headquarters. 2. Order to a unit to perform a mission without specifying how it is to be accomplished.

mixed — (*) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, by a spotter or an observer to indicate that the rounds fired resulted in an equal number of air and impact bursts.

mixed bag — (*) In naval mine warfare, a collection of mines of various types, firing

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systems, sensitivities, arming delays and

upon host-nation requests. Also called

ship counter settings.

MTT. (JP 3-05)

mixed minefield — (*) A minefield containing both antitank and antipersonnel mines. See also minefield.

mobile defense — Defense of an area or position in which maneuver is used with organization of fire and utilization of terrain to seize the initiative from the enemy.

mobile inshore undersea warfare unit —

A Navy surveillance unit that provides seaward security to joint logistics over-the- shore operations from either a port or harbor complex or unimproved beach sites. The mobile inshore undersea warfare unit is equipped with mobile radar, sonar, and communications equipment located within a mobile van. Also called MIUWU. See also joint logistics over-the-shore operations. (JP 4-01.6)

mobile mine — (*) In naval mine warfare, a mine designed to be propelled to its proposed laying position by propulsion equipment like a torpedo. It sinks at the end of its run and then operates like a mine. See also mine.

mobile support group (naval) — Provides logistic support to ships at an anchorage; in effect a naval base afloat, although certain of its supporting elements may be located ashore.

mobile training team — A team consisting of one or more US military or civilian personnel sent on temporary duty, often to a foreign nation, to give instruction. The mission of the team is to train indigenous personnel to operate, maintain, and employ weapons and support systems, or to develop a self-training capability in a particular skill. The National Command Authorities may direct a team to train either military or civilian indigenous personnel, depending

mobility — (*) A quality or capability of military forces which permits them to move from place to place while retaining the ability to fulfill their primary mission.

Mobility Air Forces — The Mobility Air Forces are comprised of those air components and Service components that are assigned air mobility forces and/or that routinely exercise command authority over their operations. Also called MAF.

mobility analysis — An in-depth examination of all aspects of transportation planning in support of operation plan and operation order development.

mobility corridor — Areas where a force will be canalized due to terrain restrictions. They allow military forces to capitalize on the principles of mass and speed and are therefore relatively free of obstacles. (JP 2-01.3)

mobility echelon — A subordinate element of a unit that is scheduled for deployment separately from the parent unit.

mobility system support resources — Those resources that are required to: a. complement the airlift and sealift forces; and/or b. perform those work functions directly related to the origination, processing, or termination of a movement requirement.

mobilization — 1. The act of assembling and organizing national resources to support national objectives in time of war or other emergencies. See also industrial mobilization. 2. The process by which the Armed Forces or part of them are brought to a state of readiness for war or other national emergency. This includes activating all or part of the Reserve

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Components as well as assembling and organizing personnel, supplies, and materiel. Mobilization of the Armed Forces includes but is not limited to the following categories. a. selective mobilization

Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and/or the President to mobilize Reserve Component units, Individual Ready Reservists, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a domestic emergency that is not the result of an enemy attack. b. partial mobilization — Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress (up to full mobilization) or by the President (not more than 1,000,000 for not more than 24 consecutive months) to mobilize Ready Reserve Component units, individual reservists, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security. c. full mobilization

— Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and the President to mobilize all Reserve Component units in the existing approved force structure, as well as all individual reservists, retired military personnel, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security. Reserve personnel can be placed on active duty for the duration of the emergency plus six months. d. total mobilization

Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and the President to organize and/or generate additional units or personnel beyond the existing force structure, and the resources needed for their support, to meet the total requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security. Also called MOB. (JP 4-05)

mobilization base — The total of all resources available, or that can be made available, to meet foreseeable wartime needs. Such resources include the manpower and materiel resources and services required for the support of essential military, civilian, and survival activities, as well as the elements affecting their state of readiness, such as (but not limited to) the following: manning levels, state of training, modernization of equipment, mobilization materiel reserves and facilities, continuity of government, civil defense plans and preparedness measures, psychological preparedness of the people, international agreements, planning with industry, dispersion, and standby legislation and controls.

mobilization exercise — An exercise involving, either completely or in part, the implementation of mobilization plans.

mobilization reserves — Not to be used. See war reserves.

mobilization site — The designated location where a Reserve Component unit or individual mobilizes or moves after mobilization for further processing, training, and employment. This differs from a mobilization station in that it is not necessarily a military installation. See also mobilization; mobilization station; Reserve Components. (JP 4-05)

mobilization staff officer — The action officer assigned the principle responsibility or additional duties related to Reserve Component mobilization actions. See also mobilization; Reserve Components.

(JP 4-05.1)

mobilization station — The designated military installation to which a Reserve Component unit or individual is moved for further processing, organizing, equipping,

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training, and employment and from which the unit or individual may move to an aerial port of embarkation or seaport of embarkation. See also mobilization; mobilization site; Reserve Components.

(JP 4-05)

mock-up — (*) A model, built to scale, of a machine, apparatus, or weapon, used in studying the construction of, and in testing a new development, or in teaching personnel how to operate the actual machine, apparatus, or weapon.

mode (identification, friend or foe) — The number or letter referring to the specific pulse spacing of the signals transmitted by an interrogator or transponder.

mode of transport — The various modes used for a movement. For each mode, there are several means of transport. They are: a. inland surface transportation (rail, road, and inland waterway); b. sea transport (coastal and ocean); c. air transportation; and d. pipelines.

modernization — See military capability.

Modernized Integrated Database — The national level repository for the general military intelligence available to the entire Department of Defense Intelligence Information System community and, through Global Command and Control System integrated imagery and intelligence, to tactical units. This data is maintained and updated by the Defense Intelligence Agency. Commands and Services are delegated responsibility to maintain their portion of the database. Also called MIDB. See also database. (JP 3-51)

modified combined obstacle overlay — A joint intelligence preparation of the battlespace product used to portray the effects of each battlespace dimension on military operations. It normally depicts

militarily significant aspects of the battlespace environment, such as obstacles restricting military movement, key geography, and military objectives. Also called MCOO. See also joint intelligence preparation of a battlespace. (JP 2-01.3)

moment — (*) In air transport, the weight of a load multiplied by its distance from a reference point in the aircraft.

monitoring — (*) 1. The act of listening, carrying out surveillance on, and/or recording the emissions of one’s own or allied forces for the purposes of maintaining and improving procedural standards and security, or for reference, as applicable. 2. The act of listening, carrying out surveillance on, and/or recording of enemy emissions for intelligence purposes. 3. The act of detecting the presence of radiation and the measurement thereof with radiation measuring instruments. Also called radiological monitoring.

monitoring service — The general surveillance of known air traffic movements by reference to a radar scope presentation or other means, for the purpose of passing advisory information concerning conflicting traffic or providing navigational assistance. Direct supervision or control is not exercised, nor is positive separation provided.

moored — Lying with both anchors down or tied to a pier, anchor buoy, or mooring buoy. (JP 4-01.6)

moored mine — (*) A contact or influence-operated mine of positive buoyancy held below the surface by a mooring attached to a sinker or anchor on the bottom. See also mine.

mopping up — (*) The liquidation of remnants of enemy resistance in an area that has been surrounded or isolated, or through

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which other units have passed without eliminating all active resistance.

mortar — A muzzle-loading, indirect fire weapon with either a rifled or smooth bore. It usually has a shorter range than a howitzer, employs a higher angle of fire, and has a tube with a length of 10 to 20 calibers. See also gun; howitzer.

mortuary affairs — Covers the search for, recovery, identification, preparation, and disposition of remains of persons for whom the Services are responsible by status and Executive Order. See also joint mortuary affairs office. (JP 4-06)

mosaic — (*) An assembly of overlapping photographs that have been matched to form a continuous photographic representation of a portion of the surface of the Earth. See also controlled mosaic; semi-controlled mosaic.

most capable Service or agency — The organization that is best suited to provide common supply commodity or logistic service support within a specific joint operation. In this context, “best suited” could mean the Service or agency that has required or readily available resources and/ or expertise. The most capable Service may or may not be the dominant user in any particular operation. See also agency. (JP 4-07)

motorized unit — (*) A unit equipped with complete motor transportation that enables all of its personnel, weapons, and equipment to be moved at the same time without assistance from other sources.

mounting — (*) 1. All preparations made in areas designated for the purpose, in anticipation of an operation. It includes the assembly in the mounting area, preparation and maintenance within the mounting area, movement to loading points, and

subsequent embarkation into ships, craft, or aircraft if applicable. 2. (DOD only) A carriage or stand upon which a weapon is placed.

mounting area — A general locality where assigned forces of an amphibious or airborne operation, with their equipment, are assembled, prepared, and loaded in shipping and/or aircraft preparatory to an assault. See also embarkation area.

movement control — 1. The planning, routing, scheduling, and control of personnel and cargo movements over lines of communications. 2. An organization responsible for the planning, routing, scheduling, and control of personnel and cargo movements over lines of communications. Also called movement control center or MCC. See also line of communications; non-unit-related cargo; non-unit-related personnel. (JP 4-01.8)

movement control center — See movement control.

movement control post — (*) The post through which the control of movement is exercised by the commander, depending on operational requirements.

movement control team — Movement control teams (MCTs) are Army units that decentralize the execution of movement responsibilities on an area basis or at key transportation nodes. The mission of the MCTs is movement control of personnel and materiel as well as the coordination of bulk fuel and water transportation at pipeline and production take-off points. To this end, the MCTs contribute to the development of procedures, documents, and practices to facilitate local movement. Their role is to expedite, coordinate, and monitor traffic moving through the transportation system. MCTs are tailored

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to meet the anticipated workload. Other Service movement requirements that exceed organic capability will be requested through the Army MCTs. The movement control center is the higher headquarters for the MCTs and is located at Corps level. Also called MCT. (JP 4-01.7)

movement credit — (*) The allocation granted to one or more vehicles in order to move over a controlled route in a fixed time according to movement instructions.

movement directive — The basic document published by the Department of the Army or the Department of the Air Force (or jointly) that authorizes a command to take action to move a designated unit from one location to another.

movement group — Those ships and embarked units that load out and proceed torendezvousintheobjectivearea. (JP3-02.2)

movement order — An order issued by a commander covering the details for a move of the command.

movement phase — In amphibious operations, the period during which various elements of the amphibious force move from points of embarkation to the operational area. This move may be via rehearsal, staging, or rendezvous areas. The movement phase is completed when the various elements of the amphibious force arrive at their assigned positions in the operational area. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation. (JP 3-02)

movement plan — In amphibious operations, the naval plan providing for the movement of the amphibious task force to the objective area. It includes information and instructions concerning departure of ships from embarkation points, the passage at sea, and the approach to and arrival in assigned positions in the objective area. See also

amphibious operation; amphibious task force. (JP 3-02)

movement report control center — The controlling agency for the entire movement report system. It has available all information relative to the movements of naval ships and other ships under naval control.

movement report system — A system established to collect and make available to certain commands vital information on the status, location, and movement of flag commands, commissioned fleet units, and ships under operational control of the Navy.

movement requirement — A stated movement mode and time-phased need for the transport of units, personnel, and/or materiel from a specified origin to a specified destination.

movement restriction — (*) A restriction temporarily placed on traffic into and/or out of areas to permit clearance of or prevention of congestion.

movement schedule — A schedule developed to monitor or track a separate entity, whether it is a force requirement, cargo or personnel increment, or lift asset. The schedule reflects the assignment of specific lift resources (such as an aircraft or ship) that will be used to move the personnel and cargo included in a specific movement increment. Arrival and departure times at ports of embarkation, etc., are detailed to show a flow and workload at each location. Movement schedules are detailed enough to support plan implementation.

movement table — (*) A table giving detailed instructions or data for a move. When necessary it will be qualified by the words road, rail, sea, air, etc., to signify the

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type of movement. Normally issued as an annex to a movement order or instruction.

movement to contact — A form of the offense designed to develop the situation and to establish or regain contact. See also meeting engagement; reconnaissance in force.

moving havens — Restricted areas established to provide a measure of security to submarines and surface ships in transit through areas in which the existing attack restrictions would be inadequate to prevent attack by friendly forces. See also moving submarine haven; moving surface ship haven.

moving map display — (*) A display in which a symbol, representing the vehicle, remains stationary while the map or chart image moves beneath the symbol so that the display simulates the horizontal movement of the vehicle in which it is installed. Occasionally the design of the display is such that the map or chart image remains stationary while the symbol moves across a screen. See also projected map display.

moving mine — (*) The collective description of mines, such as drifting, oscillating, creeping, mobile, rising, homing, and bouquet mines.

moving submarine haven — An area established by a submarine operating authority to prevent mutual interference among friendly submarines, or between friendly submarines and ships operating with towed bodies or arrays. See also moving havens.

moving surface ship haven — Established by surface ship notices, a moving surface ship haven will normally be a circle with a specified radius centered on the estimated

position of the ship or the guide of a group of ships. See also moving havens.

moving target indicator — (*) A radar presentation which shows only targets which are in motion. Signals from stationary targets are subtracted out of the return signal by the output of a suitable memory circuit.

multichannel — Pertaining to communications, usually full duplex, on more than one channel simultaneously. Multichannel transmission may be accomplished by either time-, frequency-, code-, and phase-division multiplexing or space diversity.

multi-modal — (*) In transport operations, a term applied to the movement of passengers and cargo by more than one method of transport.

multinational — Between two or more forces or agencies of two or more nations or coalition partners. See also alliance; coalition. (JP 5-0)

multinational doctrine — Fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of two or more nations in coordinated action toward a common objective. It is ratified by participating nations. See also doctrine; joint doctrine; multi-Service doctrine.

multinational exercise — An exercise containing one or more non-US participating force(s). See also exercise.

multinational force — A force composed of military elements of nations who have formed an alliance or coalition for some specific purpose. Also called MNF. See also multinational force commander; multinational operations. (JP 0-2)

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multinational force commander — A general term applied to a commander who exercises command authority over a military force composed of elements from two or more nations. The extent of the multinational force commander’s command authority is determined by the participating nations. Also called MNFC. See also multinational force. (JP 3-16)

multinational joint special operations task force — A task force composed of special operations units from one or more foreign countries and more than one US Military Department formed to carry out a specific special operation or prosecute special operations in support of a theater campaign or other operations. The multinational joint special operations task force may have conventional nonspecial operations units assigned or attached to support the conduct of specific missions. Also called MJSOTF.

See also joint special operations task force; special operations; task force.

(JP 3-05)

multinational operations — A collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations, usually undertaken within the structure of a coalition or alliance. See also alliance; coalition; coalition action. (JP 3-16)

multinational staff — A staff composed of personnel of two or more nations within the structure of a coalition or alliance. See also integrated staff; joint staff; parallel staff.

multinational warfare — Warfare conducted by forces of two or more nations, usually undertaken within the structure of a coalition or alliance. (JP 3-05)

multiple drill — See multiple unit training assemblies.

multiple inactive duty training periods —

Two scheduled inactive duty training periods performed in one calendar day, each at least four hours in duration. No more than two inactive duty training periods may be performed in one day.

multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle — A reentry vehicle carried by a delivery system that can place one or more reentry vehicles over each of several separate targets. See also maneuverable reentry vehicle; multiple reentry vehicle; reentry vehicle.

multiple reentry vehicle — The reentry vehicle of a delivery system that places more than one reentry vehicle over an individual target. See also maneuverable reentry vehicle; multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle; reentry vehicle.

multiple unit training assemblies — Two or more unit training assemblies executed during one or more consecutive days. No more than two unit training assemblies may be performed in one calendar day.

multiple warning phenomenology —

Deriving warning information from two or more systems observing separate physical phenomena associated with the same events to attain high credibility while being less susceptible to false reports or spoofing.

multiplexer — A device that combines (multiplexes) multiple input signals (information channels) into an aggregate signal (common channel) for transmission.

multi-Service doctrine — Fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of two or more Services in coordinated action toward a common objective. It is ratified by two or more

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Services, and is promulgated in multi-Service publications that identify the participating Services, e.g., Army-Navy doctrine. See also joint doctrine; joint tactics, techniques, and procedures; multinational doctrine.

multi-spectral imagery — (*) The image of an object obtained simultaneously in a number of discrete spectral bands. Also called MSI.

multi-spot ship — Those ships certified to have three or more adjacent landing areas. See also spot. (JP 3-04.1)

munition — (*) A complete device charged with explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, initiating composition, or nuclear, biological, or chemical material for use in military operations, including demolitions. Certain suitably modified munitions can be used for training, ceremonial, or nonoperational purposes. Also called ammunition. (Note: In common usage, “munitions” [plural] can be military weapons, ammunition, and equipment.) See also explosive ordnance. (JP 3-11)

munitions effectiveness assessment —

Conducted concurrently and interactively with battle damage assessment, the assessment of the military force applied in

terms of the weapon system and munitions effectiveness to determine and recommend any required changes to the methodology, tactics, weapon system, munitions, fusing, and/or weapon delivery parameters to increase force effectiveness. Munitions effectiveness assessment is primarily the responsibility of operations with required inputs and coordination from the intelligence community. Also called MEA.

See also assessment; battle damage assessment; munition. (JP 3-60)

mutual support — (*) That support which units render each other against an enemy, because of their assigned tasks, their position relative to each other and to the enemy, and their inherent capabilities. See also close support; direct support; support.

muzzle brake — A device attached to the muzzle of a weapon that utilizes escaping gas to reduce recoil.

muzzle compensator — A device attached to the muzzle of a weapon that utilizes escaping gas to control muzzle movement.

muzzle velocity — The velocity of a projectile with respect to the muzzle at the instant the projectile leaves the weapon.

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N

named area of interest — The geographical area where information that will satisfy a specific information requirement can be collected. Named areas of interest are usually selected to capture indications of adversary courses of action, but also may be related to conditions of the battlespace. Also called NAI. See also area of interest.

(JP 2-01.3)

napalm — 1. Powdered aluminum soap or similar compound used to gelatinize oil or gasoline for use in napalm bombs or flame throwers. 2. The resultant gelatinized substance.

nap-of-the-earth flight — See terrain flight.

narco-terrorismTerrorism conducted to further the aims of drug traffickers. It may include assassinations, extortion, hijackings, bombings, and kidnappings directed against judges, prosecutors, elected officials, or law enforcement agents, and general disruption of a legitimate government to divert attention from drug operations. (JP 3-07.4)

national censorship — The examination and control under civil authority of communications entering, leaving, or transiting the borders of the United States, its territories, or its possessions. See also censorship.

National Command Authorities — The President and the Secretary of Defense or their duly deputized alternates or successors. Also called NCA.

National Communications System — The telecommunications system that results from the technical and operational i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e p a r a t e telecommunications systems of the several

executive branch departments and agencies having a significant telecommunications capability. Also called NCS.

national defense area — An area established on non-Federal lands located within the United States or its possessions or territories for the purpose of safeguarding classified defense information or protecting Department of Defense (DOD) equipment and/or materiel. Establishment of a national defense area temporarily places such nonFederal lands under the effective control of the Department of Defense and results only from an emergency event. The senior DOD representative at the scene will define the boundary, mark it with a physical barrier, and post warning signs. The landowner’s consent and cooperation will be obtained whenever possible; however, military necessity will dictate the final decision regarding location, shape, and size of the national defense area. Also called NDA.

National Defense Reserve Fleet — 1. Including the Ready Reserve Force, a fleet composed of ships acquired and maintained by the Maritime Administration (MARAD) for use in mobilization or emergency. 2. Less the Ready Reserve Force, a fleet composed of the older dry cargo ships, tankers, troop transports, and other assets in MARAD’s custody that are maintained at a relatively low level of readiness. They are acquired by MARAD from commercial ship operators under the provisions of the Merchant Marine Act of 1936 and are available only on mobilization or congressional declaration of an emergency. Because the ships are maintained in a state of minimum preservation, activation requires 30 to 90 days and extensive shipyard work, for many. Also called

NDRF. See also Ready Reserve Force.

(JP 3-02.2)

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