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US Army Dictionary of Military Terms

2.2 Mб

As Amended Through 23 January 2002

transmit energy of a certain bandwidth; d. Band stop filters transmit energy outside a specific frequency band.

final approach — (*) That part of an instrument approach procedure in which alignment and descent for landing are accomplished. a. In a non-precision approach it normally begins at the final approach fix or point and ends at the missed approach point or fix. b. In a precision approach the final approach commences at the glide path intercept point and ends at the decision height/altitude.

final bearing — The magnetic bearing assigned by an air operations center, helicopter direction center, or carrier air traffic control center for final approach; an extension of the landing area centerline. See also air operations center; final approach; helicopter direction center.

(JP 3-04.1)

final destination — (*) In naval control of shipping, the final destination of a convoy or of an individual ship (whether in convoy or independent) irrespective of whether or not routing instructions have been issued.

final disposal procedures — See explosive ordnance disposal procedures.

final governing standards — A comprehensive set of country-specific substantive environmental provisions, typically technical limitations on effluent, discharges, etc., or a specific management practice. (JP 3-34)

final plan — (*) A plan for which drafts have been coordinated and approved and which has been signed by or on behalf of a competent authority. See also operation plan.

final protective fire — (*) An immediately available prearranged barrier of fire

designed to impede enemy movement across defensive lines or areas.

finance operations — The execution of the joint finance mission to provide financial advice and guidance, support of the procurement process, providing pay support, and providing disbursing support. See also financial management. (JP 1-06)

financial management — Financial management encompasses the two core processes of resource management and finance operations. Also called FM. See also finance operations; resource management operations. (JP 1-06)

financial property accounting — The establishment and maintenance of property accounts in monetary terms; the rendition of property reports in monetary terms.

fire — (*) 1. The command given to discharge a weapon(s). 2. To detonate the main explosive charge by means of a firing system. See also barrage fire; call fire; counterfire; counterpreparation fire; covering fire; destruction fire; direct fire; direct supporting fire; distributed fire; grazing fire; harassing fire; indirect fire; neutralization fire; observed fire; preparation fire; radar fire; registration fire; scheduled fire; searching fire; supporting fire; suppressive fire.

fireball — (*) The luminous sphere of hot gases which forms a few millionths of a second after detonation of a nuclear weapon and immediately starts expanding and cooling.

fire barrage (specify) — An order to deliver a prearranged barrier of fire. Specification of the particular barrage may be by code name, numbering system, unit assignment, or other designated means.


JP 1-02

As Amended Through 23 January 2002

fire capabilities chart — (*) A chart, usually in the form of an overlay, showing the areas which can be reached by the fire of the bulk of the weapons of a unit.

fire control — (*) The control of all operations in connection with the application of fire on a target.

fire control radar — (*) Radar used to provide target information inputs to a weapon fire control system.

fire control system — (*) A group of interrelated fire control equipments and/or instruments designed for use with a weapon or group of weapons.

fire coordination — See fire support coordination.

fire direction center — That element of a command post, consisting of gunnery and communications personnel and equipment, by means of which the commander exercises fire direction and/or fire control. The fire direction center receives target intelligence and requests for fire, and translates them into appropriate fire direction. The fire direction center provides timely and effective tactical and technical fire control in support of current operations. Also called FDC.

fire for effect — That volume of fires delivered on a target to achieve the desired effect. Also called FFE. See also final protective fire; fire mission; neutralize; suppression.

fire message — See call for fire.

fire mission — (*) 1. Specific assignment given to a fire unit as part of a definite plan. 2. Order used to alert the weapon/battery area and indicate that the message following is a call for fire.

fire plan — (*) A tactical plan for using the weapons of a unit or formation so that their fire will be coordinated.

firepower — (*) 1. The amount of fire which may be delivered by a position, unit, or weapon system. 2. Ability to deliver fire.

fires — The effects of lethal or nonlethal weapons. (JP 3-09)

fire storm — (*) Stationary mass fire, generally in built-up urban areas, generating strong, inrushing winds from all sides; the winds keep the fires from spreading while adding fresh oxygen to increase their intensity.

fire support — Fires that directly support land, maritime, amphibious, and special operation forces to engage enemy forces, combat formations, and facilities in pursuit of tactical and operational objectives. See also fires. (JP 3-09)

fire support area — An appropriate maneuver area assigned to fire support ships by the naval force commander from which they can deliver gunfire support to an amphibious operation. Also called FSA.

See also amphibious operation; fire support; naval support area. (JP 3-09)

fire support coordinating measure — A measure employed by land or amphibious commanders to facilitate the rapid engagement of targets and simultaneously provide safeguards for friendly forces. See also fire support coordination. (JP 3-0)

fire support coordination — (*) The planning and executing of fire so that targets are adequately covered by a suitable weapon or group of weapons.

fire support coordination center — Asingle location in which are centralized


As Amended Through 23 January 2002

communications facilities and personnel incident to the coordination of all forms of fire support. Also called FSCC. See also fire; fire support; fire support coordination; support; supporting arms coordination center. (JP 3-09.1)

fire support coordination line — A fire support coordinating measure that is established and adjusted by appropriate land or amphibious force commanders within their boundaries in consultation with superior, subordinate, supporting, and affected commanders. Fire support coordination lines (FSCLs) facilitate the expeditious attack of surface targets of opportunity beyond the coordinating measure. An FSCL does not divide an area of operations by defining a boundary between close and deep operations or a zone for close air support. The FSCL applies to all fires of air, land, and sea-based weapons systems using any type of ammunition. Forces attacking targets beyond an FSCL must inform all affected commanders in sufficient time to allow necessary reaction to avoid fratricide. Supporting elements attacking targets beyond the FSCL must ensure that the attack will not produce adverse attacks on, or to the rear of, the line. Short of an FSCL, all air-to-ground and surface-to-surface attack operations are controlled by the appropriate land or amphibious force commander. The FSCL should follow well-defined terrain features. Coordination of attacks beyond the FSCL is especially critical to commanders of air, land, and special operations forces. In exceptional circumstances, the inability to conduct this coordination will not preclude the attack of targets beyond the FSCL. However, failure to do so may increase the risk of fratricide and could waste limited resources. Also called FSCL. See also fires; fire support. (JP 3-0)

fire support element — That portion of the force tactical operations center at every

echelon above company or troop (to corps) that is responsible for targeting coordination and for integrating fires delivered on surface targets by fire-support means under the control, or in support, of the force. Also called FSE. See also fire; fire support; force; support. (JP 3-09.1)

fire support group — (*) A temporary grouping of ships under a single commander charged with supporting troop operations ashore by naval gunfire. A fire support group may be further subdivided into fire support units and fire support elements.

fire support officer — Senior field artillery officer assigned to Army maneuver battalions and brigades. Advises commander on fire-support matters. Also called FSO. See also field artillery; fire; fire support; support. (JP 3-09.1)

fire support station — An exact location at sea within a fire support area from which a fire support ship delivers fire.

fire support team — An Army team provided by the field artillery component to each maneuver company and troop to plan and coordinate all indirect fire means available to the unit, including mortars, field artillery, close air support, and naval gunfire. Also called FIST. See also close air support; field artillery; fire; fire support; support. (JP 3-09.1)

firing area — (*) In a sweeper-sweep combination it is the horizontal area at the depth of a particular mine in which the mine will detonate. The firing area has exactly the same dimensions as the interception area but will lie astern of it unless the mine detonates immediately when actuated.

firing chart — Map, photo map, or grid sheet showing the relative horizontal and vertical positions of batteries, base points, base point


JP 1-02

As Amended Through 23 January 2002

lines, check points, targets, and other details needed in preparing firing data.

firing circuit — (*) 1. In land operations, an electrical circuit and/or pyrotechnic loop designed to detonate connected charges from a firing point. 2. In naval mine warfare, that part of a mine circuit which either completes the detonator circuit or operates a ship counter.

firing mechanism — See firing circuit.

firing point — (*) That point in the firing circuit where the device employed to initiate the detonation of the charges is located. Also called FP.

firing system — In demolition, a system composed of elements designed to fire the main charge or charges.

first light — The beginning of morning nautical twilight; i.e., when the center of the morning sun is 12 degrees below the horizon.

first responder phase — A phase of medical care in which health care providers’ focus is to save life and limb and stabilize the patient sufficiently to withstand evacuation to the next level of care. This first response may include first aid (self-aid and buddy aid, combat lifesavers) or medical assistance by combat medics, hospital corpsmen, physician assistants, or physicians. See also essential care; evacuation; patient. (JP 4-02)

first strike — The first offensive move of a war. (Generally associated with nuclear operations.)

fission products — (*) A general term for the complex mixture of substances produced as a result of nuclear fission.

fission to yield ratio — (*) The ratio of the yield derived from nuclear fission to the total yield; it is frequently expressed in percent.

fitted mine — (*) In naval mine warfare, a mine containing an explosive charge, a primer, detonator, and firing system. See also exercise filled mine; explosive filled mine.

fix — (*) A position determined from terrestrial, electronic, or astronomical data.

fixed ammunition — (*) Ammunition in which the cartridge case is permanently attached to the projectile. See also munition.

fixed capital property — 1. Assets of a permanent character having continuing value. 2. As used in military establishments, includes real estate and equipment installed or in use, either in productive plants or in field operations. Synonymous with fixed assets.

fixed medical treatment facility — (*) A medical treatment facility which is designed to operate for an extended period of time at a specific site.

fixed port — Water terminals with an improved network of cargo-handling facilities designed for the transfer of oceangoing freight. See also water terminal. (JP 4-01.5)

fixed price incentive contract — A fixed price type of contract with provision for the adjustment of profit and price by a formula based on the relationship that final negotiated total cost bears to negotiated target cost as adjusted by approved changes.


As Amended Through 23 January 2002

fixed price type contract — A type of contract that generally provides for a firm price or, under appropriate circumstances, may provide for an adjustable price for the supplies or services being procured. Fixed price contracts are of several types so designed as to facilitate proper pricing under varying circumstances.

fixed station patrol — (*) One in which each scout maintains station relative to an assigned point on a barrier line while searching the surrounding area. Scouts are not stationary but remain underway and patrol near the center of their assigned stations. A scout is a surface ship, submarine, or aircraft.

fixer system — See fixer network.

flag days (red or green) — Red flag days are those during which movement requirements cannot be met; green flag days are those during which the requisite amount or a surplus of transportation capability exists.

flag officer — A term applied to an officer holding the rank of general, lieutenant general, major general, or brigadier general in the US Army, Air Force or Marine Corps or admiral, vice admiral, or rear admiral in the US Navy or Coast Guard.

flame field expedients — Simple, handmade devices used to produce flame or illumination. Also called FFE. (JP 3-15)

flame thrower — (*) A weapon that projects incendiary fuel and has provision for ignition of this fuel.

flammable cargo — See inflammable cargo.

flank guard — (*) A security element operating to the flank of a moving or

stationary force to protect it from enemy ground observation, direct fire, and surprise attack.

flanking attack — (*) An offensive maneuver directed at the flank of an enemy. See also frontal attack.

flare — (*) The change in the flight path of an aircraft so as to reduce the rate of descent for touchdown.

flare dud — A nuclear weapon that, when launched at a target, detonates with anticipated yield but at an altitude appreciably greater than intended. This is not a dud insofar as yield is concerned, but it is a dud with respect to the effects on the target and the normal operation of the weapon.

flash blindness — (*) Impairment of vision resulting from an intense flash of light. It includes temporary or permanent loss of visual functions and may be associated with retinal burns. See also dazzle.

flash burn — (*) A burn caused by excessive exposure (of bare skin) to thermal radiation.

flash message — A category of precedence reserved for initial enemy contact messages or operational combat messages of extreme urgency. Brevity is mandatory. See also precedence.

flash ranging — Finding the position of the burst of a projectile or of an enemy gun by observing its flash.

flash report — Not to be used. See inflight report.

flash suppressor — (*) Device attached to the muzzle of the weapon which reduces the amount of visible light or flash created by burning propellant gases.


JP 1-02

As Amended Through 23 January 2002

flash-to-bang time — (*) The time from light being first observed until the sound of the nuclear detonation is heard.

flatrack — Portable, open-topped, open-sided units that fit into existing below-deck container cell guides and provide a capability for container ships to carry oversized cargo and wheeled and tracked vehicles. (JP 4-01.7)

flatted cargo — Cargo placed in the bottom of the holds, covered with planks and dunnage, and held for future use. Flatted cargo usually has room left above it for the loading of vehicles that may be moved without interfering with the flatted cargo. Frequently, flatted cargo serves in lieu of ballast. Sometimes called understowed cargo.

fleet — An organization of ships, aircraft, Marine forces, and shore-based fleet activities all under the command of a commander or commander in chief who may exercise operational as well as administrative control. See also major fleet; numbered fleet.

fleet ballistic missile submarine — A nuclear-powered submarine designed to deliver ballistic missile attacks against assigned targets from either a submerged or surfaced condition. Designated as


fleet in being — A fleet (force) that avoids decisive action, but, because of its strength and location, causes or necessitates counterconcentrations and so reduces the number of opposing units available for operations elsewhere.

Fleet Marine Force — A balanced force of combined arms comprising land, air, and service elements of the US Marine Corps. A Fleet Marine Force is an integral part of

a US fleet and has the status of a type command. Also called FMF.

flexible deterrent option — A planning construct intended to facilitate early decision by laying out a wide range of interrelated response paths that begin with deterrent-oriented options carefully tailored to send the right signal. The flexible deterrent option is the means by which the various deterrent options available to a commander (such as economic, diplomatic, political, and military measures) are implemented into the planning process. Also called FDO. See also deterrent options. (JP 4-05.1)

flexible response — The capability of military forces for effective reaction to any enemy threat or attack with actions appropriate and adaptable to the circumstances existing.

flight — 1. In Navy and Marine Corps usage, a specified group of aircraft usually engaged in a common mission. 2. The basic tactical unit in the Air Force, consisting of four or more aircraft in two or more elements. 3. A single aircraft airborne on a nonoperational mission.

flight advisory — A message dispatched to aircraft in flight or to interested stations to advise of any deviation or irregularity.

flight deck — 1. In certain airplanes, an elevated compartment occupied by the crew for operating the airplane in flight. 2. The upper deck of an aircraft carrier that serves as a runway.

flight following — (*) The task of maintaining contact with specified aircraft for the purpose of determining en route progress and/or flight termination.


As Amended Through 23 January 2002

flight information center — (*) A unit established to provide flight information service and alerting service.

flight information region — (*) An airspace of defined dimensions within which flight information service and alerting service are provided. Also called FIR. See also air traffic control center; area control center.

flight information service — (*) A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights. Also called FIS.

flight levels — (*) Surfaces of constant atmospheric pressure which are related to a specific pressure datum, 1013.2 mb (29.92 in), and are separated by specific pressure intervals. (Flight levels are expressed in three digits that represent hundreds of feet; e.g., flight level 250 represents a barometric altimeter indication of 25,000 feet and flight level 255 is an indication of 25,500 feet.)

flight path — (*) The line connecting the successive positions occupied, or to be occupied, by an aircraft, missile, or space vehicle as it moves through air or space.

flight plan — (*) Specified information provided to air traffic services units relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft.

flight plan correlation — A means of identifying aircraft by association with known flight plans.

flight profile — Trajectory, or its graphic representation, followed by its altitude, speed, distance flown, and maneuver.

flight quarters — A ship configuration that assigns and stations personnel at critical positions to conduct safe flight operations. (JP 3-04.1)

flight readiness firing — A missile system test of short duration conducted with the propulsion system operating while the missile is secured to the launcher. Such a test is performed to determine the readiness of the missile system and launch facilities prior to flight test.

flight surgeon — (*) A physician specially trained in aviator medical practice whose primary duty is the medical examination and medical care of aircrew.

flight test — (*) Test of an aircraft, rocket, missile, or other vehicle by actual flight or launching. Flight tests are planned to achieve specific test objectives and gain operational information.

flight visibility — The average forward horizontal distance from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight at which prominent unlighted objects may be seen and identified by day and prominent lighted objects may be seen and identified by night.

floating base support — (*) A form of logistic support in which supplies, repairs, maintenance, and other services are provided in harbor or at an anchorage for operating forces from ships.

floating craft company — A company-sized unit made up of various watercraft teams such as tugs, barges, and barge cranes. See also watercraft. (JP 4-01.6)

floating dump — Emergency supplies preloaded in landing craft, amphibious vehicles, or in landing ships. Floating dumps are located in the vicinity of the appropriate control officer, who directs their landing as requested by the troop commander concerned. (JP 3-02)

floating mine — (*) In naval mine warfare, a mine visible on the surface. See also free mine; mine; watching mine.


JP 1-02

As Amended Through 23 January 2002

floating reserve — (*) In an amphibious operation, reserve troops which remain embarked until needed. See also general reserve.

flooder — (*) In naval mine warfare, a device fitted to a buoyant mine which, on operation after a preset time, floods the mine case and causes it to sink to the bottom.

flotation — (*) The capability of a vehicle to float in water.

fly-in echelon — Includes the balance of the initial assault force, not included in the assault echelon, and some aviation support equipment. Also called FIE. (JP 4-01.2)

foam path — A path of fire extinguisher foam laid on a runway to assist aircraft in an emergency landing.

follow-upIn amphibious operations, the reinforcements and stores carried on transport ships and aircraft (not originally part of the amphibious force) that are offloaded after the assault and assault follow-on echelons have been landed. See also amphibious operation; assault; assault follow-on echelon. (JP 3-02)

follow-up echelon — (*) In air transport operations, elements moved into the objective area after the assault echelon.

follow-up shipping — Ships not originally a part of the amphibious task force but which deliver troops and supplies to the objective area after the assault phase has begun. (JP 3-02.2)

follow-up supplies — Supplies delivered after the initial landings or airdrop to resupply units until routine supply procedures can be instituted. These supplies may be delivered either automatically or on an on-call basis and are prepared for delivery by supporting supply

units. See also resupply; routine supplies; supplies. (JP 3-17)

footprint — 1. The area on the surface of the earth within a satellite’s transmitter or sensor field of view. 2. The amount of personnel, spares, resources, and capabilities physically present and occupying space at a deployed location.

force — 1. An aggregation of military personnel, weapon systems, equipment, and necessary support, or combination thereof. 2. A major subdivision of a fleet. (JP 0-2)

force activity designators — Numbers used in conjunction with urgency of need designators to establish a matrix of priorities used for supply requisitions. Defines the relative importance of the unit to accomplish the objectives of the Department of Defense. Also called FADs. See also force. (JP 4-09)

force beddown — The provision of expedient facilities for troop support to provide a platform for the projection of force. These facilities may include modular or kit-type facility substitutes. See also facility substitutes. (JP 4-04)

force closure — The point in time when a supported joint force commander determines that sufficient personnel and equipment resources are in the assigned operational area to carry out assigned tasks. See also closure; force. (JP 3-35)

force health protection — All services performed, provided, or arranged by the Services to promote, improve, conserve, or restore the mental or physical well-being of personnel. These services include, but are not limited to, the management of health services resources, such as manpower, monies, and facilities; preventive and curative health measures; evacuation of the wounded, injured, or sick; selection of the


As Amended Through 23 January 2002

medically fit and disposition of the medically unfit; blood management; medical supply, equipment, and maintenance thereof; combat stress control; and medical, dental, veterinary, laboratory, optometry, medical food, and medical intelligence services. See also force; protection. (JP 4-02)

force list — A total list of forces required by an operation plan, including assigned forces, augmentation forces, and other forces to be employed in support of the plan.

force module — A grouping of combat, combat support, and combat service support forces, with their accompanying supplies and the required nonunit resupply and personnel necessary to sustain forces for a minimum of 30 days. The elements of force modules are linked together or are uniquely identified so that they may be extracted from or adjusted as an entity in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System databases to enhance flexibility and usefulness of the operation plan during a crisis. Also called FM. See also force module package.

force module package — A force module with a specific functional orientation (e.g. air superiority, close air support, reconnaissance, ground defense) that include combat, associated combat support, and combat service support forces. Additionally, force module packages will contain sustainment in accordance with logistic policy contained in Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan Annex B. Also called

FMP. See also force module.

force movement control center — A temporary organization activated by the Marine air-ground task force to control and coordinate all deployment support activities. Also called FMCC. See also

Marine air-ground task force. (JP 4-01.8)

force multiplier — A capability that, when added to and employed by a combat force, significantly increases the combat potential of that force and thus enhances the probability of successful mission accomplishment. (JP 3-05.3)

force planning — Planning associated with the creation and maintenance of military capabilities. It is primarily the responsibility of the Military Departments and Services and is conducted under the administrative control that runs from the Secretary of Defense to the Military Departments and Services. (JP 5-0)

force projection — The ability to project the military element of national power from the continental United States (CONUS) or another theater, in response to requirements for military operations. Force projection operations extend from mobilization and deployment of forces to redeployment to CONUS or home theater. See also force. (JP 3-35)

force protection — Actions taken to prevent or mitigate hostile actions against Department of Defense personnel (to include family members), resources, facilities, and critical information. These actions conserve the force’s fighting potential so it can be applied at the decisive time and place and incorporate the coordinated and synchronized offensive and defensive measures to enable the effective employment of the joint force while degrading opportunities for the enemy. Force protection does not include actions to defeat the enemy or protect against accidents, weather, or disease. Also called

FP. See also force; protection; terrorist threat condition. (JP 3-0)

force rendezvous — (*) A checkpoint at which formations of aircraft or ships join and become part of the main force. Also called group rendezvous.


JP 1-02

As Amended Through 23 January 2002

force requirement number — An alphanumeric code used to uniquely identify force entries in a given operation plan time-phased force and deployment data. Also called FRN.

force(s) — See airborne force; armed forces; covering force; garrison force; multinational force; Navy cargo handling force; task force; underway replenishment force.

force shortfall — A deficiency in the number of types of units available for planning within the time required for the performance of an assigned task. (JP 4-05)

forces in being — (*) Forces classified as being in state of readiness “A” or “B” as prescribed in the appropriate Military Committee document.

force sourcing — The identification of the actual units, their origins, ports of embarkation, and movement characteristics to satisfy the time-phased force requirements of a supported commander.

force structure — See military capability.

force tabs — With reference to war plans, the statement of time-phased deployments of major combat units by major commands and geographical areas.

force tracking — The identification of units and their specific modes of transport during movement to an objective area. (JP 4-01.3)

forcible entry — Seizing and holding of a military lodgment in the face of armed opposition. See also lodgment. (JP 3-18)

fordability — See shallow fording.

foreign armed force — An armed force belonging to a government or

organizational entity other than the United States.

foreign assistance — Assistance to foreign nations ranging from the sale of military equipment to donations of food and medical supplies to aid survivors of natural and manmade disasters. US assistance takes three forms — development assistance, humanitarian assistance, and security assistance. See also domestic emergencies; foreign disaster; foreign humanitarian assistance; security assistance. (JP 3-08)

foreign disaster — An act of nature (such as a flood, drought, fire, hurricane, earthquake, volcanic eruption, or epidemic), or an act of man (such as a riot, violence, civil strife, explosion, fire, or epidemic), which is or threatens to be of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant United States foreign disaster relief to a foreign country, foreign persons, or to an international organization. See also foreign disaster relief. (JP 3-08)

foreign disaster relief — Prompt aid that can be used to alleviate the suffering of foreign disaster victims. Normally it includes humanitarian services and transportation; the provision of food, clothing, medicine, beds, and bedding; temporary shelter and housing; the furnishing of medical materiel and medical and technical personnel; and making repairs to essential services. See also foreign disaster. (JP 3-07.6)

foreign humanitarian assistance —

Programs conducted to relieve or reduce the results of natural or manmade disasters or other endemic conditions such as human pain, disease, hunger, or privation that might present a serious threat to life or that can result in great damage to or loss of property. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) provided by US forces is limited in scope and duration. The foreign assistance


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