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Санкт-Петербургскийгосударственный архитектурно-строительныйуниверситет

Общестроительныйфакультет

КафедраиностранныхязыковСПбГАСУ

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Учебно-методическое пособие № 141

«MODERNARCHITECTURE» (Современнаяархитектура)

Санкт-Петербург

2014

Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Санкт-Петербургский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет

Общестроительный факультет

Кафедра иностранных языков СПбГАСУ

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Учебно-методическое пособие № 141

«MODERN ARCHITECTURE» (Современная архитектура)

Санкт-Петербург

2014

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УДК 811.111(075).

Рецензент ст. преподаватель В. А. Памфилова (СПбГАСУ)

Английский язык: учеб.-метод. пособие № 141. «MODERN ARCHITECTURE» (Современная архитектура) / сост.: Т. В. Лаппо, А. В. Потапчук; СПбГАСУ. – СПб., 2014. – 104 с.

Предназначено для студентов I и II курса направлений подготовки 270100 – архитектура, 270900 – градостроительство, 270300 – дизайн архитектурной среды, 270200 – реконструкция и реставрация архитектурного наследия, 271101 – строительство уникальных зданий и сооружений.

Санкт-Петербургский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет, 2013

Введение

Учебно-методическое пособие «Modern Architecture» («Современная архитектура») в восьми разделах предназначено для аудиторных и внеаудиторных занятий студентов I и II курса направлений подготовки 270100 – архитектура, 270900 – градостроительство, 270300 – дизайн архитектурной среды, 270200 – реконструкция и реставрация архитектурного наследия, 271101 – строительство уникальных зданий и сооружений.

В пособии используются неадаптированные тексты на английском языке о современной архитектуре и строительстве, о тенденциях в мировой и отечественной архитектуре, о различных архитектурных формах и стилях XX–XXI века, о выдающихся сооружениях современности, о жизни и деятельности ряда известных мастеров мировой архитектуры.

Тексты снабжены комментариями, содержат грамматические

илексические упражнения, направленные на активизацию лексики в данной семантической области.

Особенностью данного методического пособия является то, что каждый раздел пособия имеет электронное приложение (Visual Appendix), содержащее иллюстрации к содержанию текстов, и ряд упражнений. Последние выполняются студентами в компьютерном классе либо на домашнем ПК и закрепляют лексику разделов пособия, что дает возможность выполнять такие задания, как подготовка

ипроведение презентации по заданной теме.

Вконце пособия прилагается краткий англо-русский словарь архитектурных и строительных терминов.

Целью данного пособия является интенсивное развитие навыков устной и письменной профессиональной коммуникации студентов архитектурно-строительного направления, достигаемое применением инновационных образовательных методов обучения.

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UNIT 1

Art Nouveau Architecture

Text A

Art Nouveau Architecture Origin

Modern architecture had its beginnings in the late XIX century when architects began reacting to the eclecticism* (an architectural and design movement that revived the styles of various historical periods) prevalent at the time. The term «modern architecture» is used to refer to the architecture that turned away from past historical styles in favor of designs that are expressive of their own time period.

At the end of the XIX century, many European artists and architects rebelled against formal, classical approaches to design. They believed that the greatest beauty could be found in nature. Art Nouveau* (French for "New Style") was popularized by the famous Maison de l'Art Nouveau, a Paris art gallery operated by Siegfried Bing. Art Nouveau is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art – especially the decorative arts – that were most popular during 1890– 1910.

The name Art Nouveau was a style of distinct individuals such as Gustav Klimt, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Alphonse Mucha, René Lalique, Antoni Gaudí and Louis Comfort Tiffany. Art Nouveau buildings have such features as asymmetrical shapes, extensive use of arches and curved forms, curving, curved glass, plant-like embellishments, mosaics, stained glass, Japanese motifs.

In the Russian empire, Art Nouveau was called «modern». It was perhaps the most dominant artistic and architectural movement that shaped the appearance of today Saint-Petersburg. Our city alone has sev-

eral thousand surviving Art Nouveau buildings, in fact, large urban districts were rebuilt entirely with Art Nouveau structures before 1914. Unfortunately, this heritage fell into obscurity* as in other European countries.

A fine example of the Art Nouveau architecture in Saint-Petersburg is Singer House, also widely known as the House of Books, located at the intersection of Nevsky Prospect and the Griboyedov Canal, directly opposite the Kazan Cathedral. The building is recognized as an historical landmark, and has official status as an object of Russian cultural heritage. The building was designed by architect Pavel Suzor for the Russian branch of the Singer Sewing Machine Company and completed in 1904.

The management of the Singer Company initially intended to construct a skyscraper, similar to the Singer Building, the company headquarters being built at that time in New York, but the Saint Petersburg building code did not allow structures taller than the Winter Palace, the residence of the Emperor. The architect found an elegant solution to the limit of 23.5 meters: the six-story Art Nouveau building is crowned with a glass tower, which in turn is topped by a glass globe sculpture. This tower creates the impression of a substantial elevation, but is subtle enough not to overshadow either the Kazan Cathedral or the Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood. In 1919, not long after the October Revolution, the building was given to the Petrograd State Publishing House. It quickly became the city's largest book store, and was subsequently named "The House of Books". The book store remained functioning during the Siege of Leningrad until November 1942. It reopened again in 1948. The building was closed for reconstruction during 2004–2006, then, it was re-opened as the home of several businesses, including the familiar House of Books.

Notes:

*eclecticism – эклектика

[Эклектика направление в архитектуре, доминировавшее в Европе и России в 1830-е – 1890-е гг. Для данного направления типично смешение, соединение разнородных стилей (неоренессанс, необарокко, неорококо, неоготика, неомавританский стиль и др.), основанное на их искусственном соединении].

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*Art Nouveau стиль Модерн

Название стиля ар нуво (фр. Art Nouveau) в переводе c французского означает «новое искусство». В России этот популярный стиль в архитектуре назвали русский модерн (от фр. moderne – современный).

*obscurity (n) – безвестность, забвение [to sink/fall into obscurity

быть преданным забвению]

Answer the questions:

1.When did modern architecture have its beginnings?

2.How can you characterize eclecticism?

3.What does the term “Art Nouveau” denote?

4.Who was Art Nouveau popularized by?

5.What are common features of Art Nouveau architecture?

6.Which European architects did their designs in the Art Nouveau style?

7.How many Art Nouveau buildings are there in Saint-Petersburg?

8.What building is described in the text as an example of Art Nouveau architecture in Saint-Petersburg?

Exercise 1

Find the Russian translations in section B for the English words and word groups in section A:

Arevive, prevalent, refer, be expressive of, rebel against, popularize, distinct individuals, features, аsymmetrical shapes, Art Nouveau structures, extensive use, arches and curved forms, curved glass, curving, mosaics, stained glass, be crowned with; overshadow.

Bпопуляризировать, относиться к, особенности, увенчиваться, асимметричные формы, широкое применение, восставать против, арки и изогнутые формы, гнутое стекло, выражать что-л. (быть выразительным), мозаика, витражное стекло, распространенный (преобладающий), затмевать, изгиб, возрождать, ярко выраженные индивидуальности, постройки в стиле Модерн.

Exercise 2

Form the Past Simple in the Active and Passive voice of the following verbs and make up sentences with them:

Infinitive

Past Simple

(Active

Past Simple (Passive

 

Voice)

 

Voice)

begin

began

 

was/were begun

call

called

 

was/were called

design

 

 

 

know

 

 

 

overshadow

 

 

 

give

 

 

 

intend

 

 

 

find

 

 

 

curve

 

 

 

depict

 

 

 

bring

 

 

 

demolish

 

 

 

extend

 

 

 

draw

 

 

 

Exercise 3

Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form (Past Simple in the Active or the Passive voice) and translate the sentences:

1.Art Nouveau (be) an innovative international style of modern art that (become) fashionable from about 1890 to the First World War.

2.This aesthetic (consider) to be quite revolutionary and new, hence its name – New Art – or Art Nouveau.

3.Art Nouveau (spread) across Europe and as far as the United States and Australia, under local names like Jugendstil in Germany), Stile Liberty in Italy), Sezessionstil in Austria and Tiffany style in America).

4.The movement (replace) in the 1920s by Art Deco.

5.Art made in this style typically (depict) lavish birds, flowers, insects, as well as the hair and bodies of beautiful women.

6.Art Nouveau as a style basically (orient) to a big development of ornamentation both in facades and interiors.

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7.The extensive use of iron and glass in Art Nouveau buildings also (root) in the XIX century practice.

8.In Finland, Eliel Saarinen (bring) an Art Nouveau flavour to the National Romanticism current in the years around 1900.

9.In the United States the Art Nouveau movement (arrive) with the designer Louis Comfort Tiffany and (be) especially influential on ornamental rather than spatial design, particularly on Sullivan’s decorative schemes and those of Frank Lloyd Wright.

Exercise 4

Find Subjects and Predicates in the following sentences and determine the Voice of the Predicate:

1.Art Nouveau rapidly broke into the city’s architectural silhouette.

2.A short period dominated by the Art Nouveau style – only some three decades – was a critical era in the history of St Petersburg and entire Russia.

3.Not only dwelling houses were designed in the Northern Art Nouveau style – sometimes combined with Neo-Classicism – many banks and shops with richly decorated facades were also constructed.

4.In the Russian empire, Art Nouveau was called «modern».

5.At the end of the XIX century many European artists and architects rebelled against formal, classical approaches to design.

6.The building was closed for reconstruction during 2004–2006, then re-opened as the home of several businesses, including the familiar House of Books.

Exercise 5

Fill in the gap with a suitable word from the list:

By, in favour of, against, opposite, in turn, away.

1.A group of young architects rebelled… the tradition of formalism in Japan.

2.The style was directly borrowed by the American Colonists from Georgian England, whose architects … looked to Greek and Roman models for their inspiration.

3.The style was popularized … a group of XIX th century English architects.

4.Some members of the Architectural League signed a declaration … encouraging the development of the new architectural style.

5.The interior of the first floor contains a grand stairway that is located … the main entrance.

6.Some designers turned … from the structures similar to glass boxes.

Exercise 6

Find antonyms in section B to the words in section A:

A erect (v), begin (v), outstanding (adj), beautiful (adj), complicated (adj).

B simple (adj), ordinary (adj), complete (v), demolish (v), ugly

(adj).

Exercise 7

Translate the following word combinations into English using words and word groups from the text:

асимметричные формы; возрождать стиль; выступать против формального классического подхода; головной офис компании; декоративное искусство; исторический памятник архитектуры; конструкции, выражающие дух своего времени; культурное наследие; небоскреб; прекрасный пример; прикладное искусство; увенчиваться стеклянной башней; украшения; царская резиденция; японские мотивы; яркие индивидуальности.

Exercise 8

Find a word in section B that is close in its meaning (synonym) or opposite in its meaning (antonym) to the word/word group in section A:

Arevive (v), prevalent (adj), refer (v), rebel (v), аsymmetrical (adj), extensive (adj), arch (n), curved (adj), overshadow (v).

Blimited (ad.), straight (adj), regard (v), curvature (n), obey (v), symmetrical (adj), narrow (adj), dominant (adj), exceed in importance, reanimate (v).

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Exercise 9

Write a summary of the text. Your summary should contain about 150 words.

Home Task

Find in the Internet information on a building created in the Art Nouveau style in Saint-Petersburg and make a short report about it in the PowerPoint program.

Antoni Gaudí (1852–1956)

Text B

Antoni Gaudí

One of the most internationally prestigious figures in Spanish architecture was Antoni Gaudí (1852–1956), a Barcelona-based Spanish architect born in Catalonia and regarded a figurehead of Catalan Modernism whose free-flowing works were greatly influenced by nature.

The son of a coppersmith, Antoni Gaudí took to architecture at a young age and attended school in Barcelona, Spain’s most modern city at the time, the city that would become the centre of his activities, home to most of his great works. Upon graduation from the Provincial School of Architecture in 1878, Gaudí initially worked in the artistic vein of his Victorian predecessors, but he soon developed his own style, composing his works with juxtapositions of geometric masses and animating the surfaces with patterned brick or stone, bright ceramic tiles and floral or reptilian metalwork. In 1883, Gaudí was charged with the construction of a Barcelona cathedral called Basilica and Expiatory Church of the Holy Family. Although the plans had been drawn up earlier, and construction had already begun, Gaudí completely changed the design, stamping it with his own distinctive style. After 1902, Antoni Gaudí’s designs began to defy conventional stylistic classification, and he created a type of structure known as equilibrated – that is, it could stand on its own without internal bracing, external buttressing*, etc. The primary functional elements of this system were columns that tilted to employ diagonal thrusts and lightweight tile vaults.

Notably, Gaudí used his equilibrated system to construct two Barcelona apartment buildings: the Casa Batlló and the Casa Milà whose

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floors were structured like clusters of tile lily pads*. Both projects are considered to be characteristic of Gaudí’s style.

Increasingly pious, after 1910, Gaudí abandoned nearly all other work to focus on the Sagrada Familia, which he had begun in 1883, cloistering* himself onsite and living in the workshop. While employing Gaudí’s equilibrated methods, the church would borrow from the cathe- dral-Gothic and Art Nouveau styles but present them in a form beyond recognition. The structure remained unfinished at the time of the architect’s death in 1926 and, in fact, has a final completion target date of 2026, to mark the 100th anniversary of his passing.

In his own time, Gaudi was both admired and criticized for the audacity and singularity of his innovative solutions. His fame on the world scale has become an unquestioned fact both in specialized circles and among the general public.

Notes:

*buttress (n) – контрфорс (= a structure, usually brick or stone, built against a wall for support or reinforcement)

*buttress (v) – поддерживать, подпирать (= to support something physically with, or as if with, a prop or buttress)

*lily pads – плавающие

*cloister (v) – уединяться

Answer the questions:

1.What country did Antoni Gaudi come from?

2.What was his father’s profession?

3.Where did Antoni Gaudi study?

4.Which style did he initially work in?

5.What was his new style characterized with?

6.When was Antoni Gaudi commissioned to create Basilica and Expiatory Church of the Holy Family?

7.How did his designs change after 1902?

8.What else did he create using his equilibrated system?

9.What architectural creation did Antoni Gaudi concentrate on after 1910?

10.What was Gaudi admired for?

Exercise 1

Find the Russian translations in section B for the English words/word groups in section A:

Apredecessor, juxtapositions, patterned brick or stone, ceramic tiles, floral or reptilian metalwork, draw up (plans), distinctive style, defy, conventional stylistic classification, equilibrated structure, internal bracing, external buttressing, functional elements, diagonal thrusts, lightweight tile vaults, focus on, borrow, beyond recognition, tilt.

Bфункциональные элементы, диагональные распоры, заимствовать, составлять планы, легковесные кафельные своды, художественная металлообработка с цветочными мотивами и фигурами змей, внешние контрфорсы, общепринятая стилистическая классификация, характерный стиль, узорчатый кирпич или камень, керамическая плитка, игнорировать (пренебрегать), внутреннее крепление, сбалансированная конструкция, наклоняться, сосредотачиваться на чем-л., вне узнаваемости, сопоставление, предшественник.

Exercise 2

Provide the English translation for the following:

элементы, распоры, своды, металлообработка, контрфорсы, узорчатый кирпич, керамическая плитка, крепление, сопоставление.

Exercise 3

Are these translations correct or incorrect? Correct the mistakes:

1.abandon (v) – отказываться (от чего-л.)

2.anniversary (n) – годовщина

3.bracing (n) – фасад здания

4.buttress (n) – арка

5.defy (v) – пренебрегать

6.figurehead (n) – подставное лицо

7.predecessor(n) – предшественник

8.recognition (n) – забывчивость

9.surface (n) – глубина

10.vault (n) – стойка

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Exercise 4

Translate the following word combinations:

internationally prestigious figure; the centre of his activities; to develop one`s own style; to be charged with; characteristic of Gaudí’s style; to focus on; beyond recognition; a final completion target date; the 100th anniversary of his passing; to be criticized for the audacity and singularity of his innovative solutions; the general public.

Exercise 5

Study the table below, form the Present Perfect and Past Perfect (in the Active or the Passive Voice) of the following verbs, and make up sentences with them:

write; defy; become; classify; begin; develop; relieve; calculate; substitute; build; set.

Make up your own sentences with these verbs.

Infinitive

Present Perfect (Ac-

Past Perfect

 

tive/Passive)

(Active/Passive)

 

 

 

abandon

Have/has abandoned

Had abandoned

 

Have/has been aban-

Had been abandoned

 

doned

 

draw

Have/has drawn

Had drawn

 

Have/has been drawn

Had been drawn

Exercise 6

Translate the sentences defining the Tense and the Voice of the Predicate.

1.We have already read a book about Antoni Gaudi, a great Spanish architect.

2.It is considered that Gaudi’s immersion in nature has inspired his architectural style.

3.One of the singular most famous architects of the XIX and XX century, Antonio Gaudi has become an international superstar whose work continues to inspire audiences throughout the world.

4.In the beginning of the XX century, Antonio Gaudi was producing the pieces of work so due to which he is so famous today.

5.It was planned that the construction of the church would have been completed by 2026, the 100th anniversary of Gaudi’s death.

6.Computer modeling has been used for the detailed design of the intricate structure of supporting columns inside the basilica.

7.Although the plans had been drawn up earlier, and the construction had already begun, Gaudí completely changed the design, stamping it with his own distinctive style.

8.Gaudi had worked in the artistic vein of his Victorian predecessors before starting to apply his own distinctive style.

9.The presentation devoted to the life and work of one of the greatest European architect Antoni Gaudi has been made successfully.

Exercise 7

Find Participles I or II in the text and define their function in the sentence.

Exercise 10

Translate the following sentences and define the function of Participle I or II:

1.Architecture gets closer to industrial design and sees itself as portable architecture creating transportable, reproducible prototypes.

2.The panels are attached to a supporting framework.

3.Having interconnected four corner columns by edge beams the builders formed a rigid framed structure.

4.The existing building can not be adapted to changing circumstances.

5.Non-loadbearing internal walls are partitions separating room from room.

6.Architecture is thus also conceivable as a special practice that produces ephemeral ideas and concepts that may as well respond to an expanded notion of mobility within contemporary society.

7.Responding to problems arising from new forms of mobility architecture cannot escape the social and political responsibility.

8.A room enclosed with walls has no light or view, so the wall has to be opened up.

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9.Children start understanding objects around them through empathy imagining themselves inside the object and feeling how gravity works on it.

10.Different styles of architecture in the past tell us about advanced civilization of ancient countries.

11.Framed buildings frequently have walls, which increase structural rigidity serving to transmit horizontal loads.

12.The forces acting upon the framework are transmitted to the foundation through several assemblies of load-bearing members.

13.The structural design of the house made by A. Urech is simple.

14.Walls may be used as spanning members, carrying their own weight as well as some supported loads.

15.The load-carrying structure of an upper floor transmits the loads acting directly upon it to the supports.

Exercise 8

Make up a brief plan of the text.

Exercise 9

Write a short summary of the text. Your summary must be composed of about 9 or 10 sentences.

Home Task

Find information about the architect Antoni Gaudi in the internet and get ready for the tasks in the Visual Appendix to Unit 1.

Unit 2

Old versus New

Text A

Old versus New (the Tower of Pisa & the Capital Gate)

People admire architecture that makes a statement: a unique design, unexpected location or some controversial element, that is, all these things that make people think about architecture and discuss it. Sometimes, an error or afterthought can add to a landmark’s historical legacy. As a point of contrast, let us consider two notable examples: the Tower of Pisa and the Capital Gate tower in Abu Dhabi.

The Leaning Tower of Pisa, or simply the Tower of Pisa, is a freestanding bell tower of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa. The Tower is known worldwide for its unintended tilt to one side. The bell tower of the cathedral of Pisa is one of the oldest landmarks built in Italy and a genuine work of art.

Soon after its construction in 1173, engineers were baffled to see the tower’s foundation shift in direction. The reason for this was that tower had been built on weak, unstable subsoil, which allowed the foundation to slightly shift direction. This caused one side of the tower to sink into the ground. When this happened, five years had passed since the start of the construction and the tower had progressed to the third floor. The tilt increased in the decades before the structure was completed, and gradually increased until the structure was stabilized (and the tilt partially corrected) by efforts in the late XX and early XXI centuries.

The Leaning Tower has been subject to several restoration and stabilization projects; not only due to the towers instable nature, but also due to its age and exposure to wind and rain. The first stabilization pro-

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