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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ

УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«БАРАНОВИЧСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Н. А. ЕГОРОВА

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКОГО

ОБЩЕНИЯ В ШКОЛЕ

ORGANISING PEDAGOGICAL

COMMUNICATION AT SCHOOL

Методические рекомендации

для студентов специальности

1-02 03 07 Иностранный язык (английский).

Дополнительная специальность

1-02 03 07-02 Иностранный язык (английский). Информатика

Барановичи

РИО БарГУ

2011

UNIT 1

WHAT MAKES PEDAGOGICAL COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVE?

THEORETICAL PRELIMINARIES

Pedagogical Communication

What is communication? According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary the word means 'the act of imparting, especially news', or 'the science and practice of transmitting information'. These definitions clearly show the link between 'teaching' and 'communication': teachers are constantly imparting new knowledge, or transmitting information. Communication is a complex process. At any stage of this process things may go wrong, making the communication less effective. To be effective, teachers have to try to minimise these barriers to communication.

Communication does not only take place by means of words; non-verbal communication (or body language) is equally important. We are all familiar with the kinds of non-verbal communication. A communication situation corresponds to an archetypal discourse manifestation that can at least be identified and described by the following three general properties:

1. Thematic: defining specific themes and contents, each interaction scene or site;

2. Formal: setting various discursive or semiotic markers; i.e. specific ways of using certain meaningful units;

3. Relational: establishing relationship and expressing it through formal communication structures.

Person-to-Person Communication : Presentation Skills

Some teachers like to talk, and expect the students to write down what they say and to learn it (this style encourages superficial learning and rapid forgetting).Other teachers see their role as one of helping the students to learn at a deeper level – to understand new ideas and concepts so well that they can apply them in a work situation. Either way, these teachers will do a better job if they communicate well with their students.

Written Communication : Handouts

Teachers communicate not only by speaking, but also by writing. What is a handout? It is not a photocopy of a journal article, or of some pages out of a textbook. Rather, it is a document which the teacher writes him / herself. It may be a summary of important points to be learnt; or a guide to students on work they have to do, or references they have to look up. Teachers may use handouts for students to refer to during a lesson, and students will definitely use them in their self-study time. Because handouts are such an important way of communicating with students, they must communicate effectively.

Do Create a Partnership with Parents

A partnership implies that all parties work together – as equals – with specific rights and responsibilities toward a common goal. Each party contributes his own specific skills and knowledge toward meeting the objectives. Unfortunately, much home / school communication is one-sided and school-directed. Information is shared... but power is not shared. This approach is not conducive to creating a genuine partnership. The great majority of home / school crises (and lawsuits!) are a direct result of poor communication.

Do Be Positive

In most families, a phone call or note from a teacher automatically indicates bad news related to the child's behavior or performance. You can prevent this from occurring by making “sunshine calls” on occasion. Simply drop the parent a note or give them a call when a child pleases (or surprises!) you with positive behavior or progress. Always begin and end your communiqué (verbal or written) in a positive way. The problem or difficulty should be covered in the middle.

Do Remember...

Before they care how much you know, they got to know how much you care! Parents want to feel that you know their child and enjoy his company. Every parent has attended the never-ending, tedious classroom meeting with a teacher who drones on about the curriculum expectations and the educational objectives but says nothing that indicates any knowledge of (or interest in) the child as an individual.

Don't Use Jargon When Communicating with Parents

Every occupation or profession has its own unique vocabulary that is designed to facilitate communication among its members. But this terminology becomes an obstacle to effective communication when used with individuals outside the profession. Some teachers unintentionally (or intentionally?) confuse parents by using overly technical language. Don't Be very aware of not “talking down” to parents. Be flexible in your parent communication by modifying your language to match the knowledge base of the parent.

Do Handle Conflicts Effectively

These conflicts and disagreements are, unfortunately, inevitable because of the critical nature of the parent / school relationship. When a conflict arises and has been resolved, wipe the slate clean. Let it go. Move on and try to rebuild the partnership and trust that you had previously shared with the parent. During a conflict, the professional must be sure to focus on the best interest of the child. Separate the person from the problem. Don't allow “adult agendas” or clashing egos to impact on your decisions. Never let a parent / teacher disagreement modify your treatment of the child. Never hesitate to use “trial periods”.

Do Recognize That Every Teacher / Parent Relationship Has Three Stages

John Cheng Gorman wisely reminds professionals that each home / school relationship has a beginning stage, a maintenance stage and an ending stage. Each of these stages has unique opportunities, strategies, responsibilities and pitfalls. The Beginning Stage requires the teacher to establish her credibility as a competent and confident professional. She must set the tone for ongoing collaboration and outline the specific goals, roles and responsibilities of each member of the new partnership. The Maintenance Stage requires the teacher to use ongoing conferencing and communication to continue and enhance the partnership. The Ending Stage brings appropriate closure to the partnership by creative and effective and well-planned transition to the next step in the child's academic progression. The teacher must provide the family with encouragement as they face this new step.

READING AND DISCUSSING

  1. Read the tips how to get the students’ attention in class. Give examples of their application in educational practice.

❖ Ask an interesting, speculative question.

❖ Try 'playfulness', silliness, a bit of theatrics (props and storytelling).

❖ Use storytelling.

❖ Mystery. This is a wonderful way to generate predictions and can lead to excellent discussions or writing activities.

❖ Signal students.

❖ Vary the tone of your voice: loud, soft, whispering.

❖ Frame the visual material.

❖ COLOR is very effective in getting attention.

❖ Model excitement and enthusiasm about the upcoming lesson.

❖ Eye contact. Students should be facing you when you are speaking.

❖ Maintain your visibility.

2. Read the tips how to strengthen teacher's relationships with the students and answer the questions that follow.

❖ Use a variety of classroom teaching methods to keep your students motivated and challenged.

❖ Enhance your classroom control and encourage your students to think.

❖ Motivating students is the key to driving them to define and achieve their future dreams and goals.

❖ Computers in the classroom have a tremendous upside.

❖  Do not respond to students who call out. Let them know they must raise their hand and wait for permission to speak.

❖  Don't repeat every response that students give. Eventually they won't listen to other students because they know the teacher will repeat it.

❖ After asking a question, pause to let the students think and then say the student's name. If you say the student's name first, only he / she will listen.

❖ Don't just accept “yes” or “no” answers. Have students solve problems, infer and use critical thinking.

❖ Crossing your arms a lot is seen as a negative stand and could put students on the defensive for no reason.

❖  Before you begin teaching always “scan” the classroom and make sure “all eyes on me”.

❖ If the classroom is very noisy with students talking but they know that you want to start your lesson, one extremely effective tactic is to stand still and stare at the clock (watch) and wait patiently and calmly until they stop talking (do not cross your arms). When there is silence, say “You have just wasted 3, 4, 5, etc., minutes of my time. It is to be made up at recess”. At recess, the students are to sit quietlyfor the amount of time they wasted and then be dismissed quietly.

❖ When circulating around the room and talking, touch or put your hand gentlyon the shoulder of the student who is not focused and then continue walking. Touching is a very tricky subject. Touching as a sign of congratulations in younger children is accepted but should be avoided for older students.

❖ Illustrate, illustrate, illustrate. Drawings don't have to be sophisticated or accurate. In fact, often the sillier is the better. Have fun with it.

❖ Decrease the amount of time teacher is doing the talking.

❖ Use direct instruction techniques and other methods of questioning that allow for high response opportunities (i.e. unison responses, partner / buddy responses).

❖ Structure the lesson so that it can be done in pairs or small groups.

❖ Make frequent use of group or unison responses when there is one correct and short answer. While presenting, stop frequently and have students repeat back a word or two.

❖ Give a manageable amount of work that student is capable of doing independently.

❖ All students need positive reinforcement.

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