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Материалы к зачету по Страноведению.doc
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  1. What are three main documents of American democracy?

 The nation's most famous documents: the Declaration of Independence, the original Constitution of the United States, and the Bill of Rights.

Drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was a statement adopted by the Continental Congress, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states.

The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. The first three Articles of the Constitution establish the rules and separate powers of the three branches of the federal government: a legislature, the bicameral Congress; an executive branch led by the President; and a federal judiciary headed by the Supreme Court. The last four Articles frame the principle of federalism. The Tenth Amendment confirms its federal characteristics. The Constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787, by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and ratified by conventions in eleven states.

The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. These limitations serve to protect the natural rights of liberty and property. They guarantee a number of personal freedoms, limit the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and reserve some powers to the states and the public. The amendments were introduced by James Madison to the 1st United States Congress as a series of legislative articles. They were adopted by the House of Representatives on August 21, 1789.

  1. In what epoch of American political life did the “system of spoils” flourish?

In the politics of the United States, a spoil system (also known as a patronage system) is a practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a system of awarding offices on the basis of some measure of merit independent of political activity. The term was derived from the phrase "to the victor belong the spoils of the enemy" by New York Senator William L. Marcy, referring to the victory of the Jackson Democrats in the election of 1828. Similar spoils systems are common in other nations that traditionally have been based on tribal organization or other kinship groups and localism in general.

President Andrew Jackson's inauguration signaled a sharp departure from past presidencies.

  1. What are the three branches of power in the usa?

The first three Articles of the Constitution establish the rules and separate powers of the three branches of the federal government: a legislature, the bicameral Congress; an executive branch led by the President; and a federal judiciary headed by the Supreme Court.

  1. How many were the states, which founded the usa? Can you name some of them?

Thirteen Colonies in 1776 declared their independence from the British Empire and formed a new nation, the United States of America.

The colonies were: Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts Bay, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

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