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1. Associated/fixed/conventional epithets: true love, Merry Christmas, fair lady


a ghost-like face, a sad old bathrobe (J.Salinger)


1.simple: an angry sky; compound: a heart-burning desire; two-step structures: a pompously majestic female.

2.phrasal /clausal: a don’t-care attitude, head-to-toe beauty, go-to-devil request, I-don’t-care-about-it feeling

3.Inverted/reversed/metaphorical: a ghost of a smile appeared on Soames’s face. (j. Galsworthy)

6. Metonymical group. Syntactic and semantic difference between metonymy and metaphor.

  • Metonymical group: the transfer of the meaning on the basis of contiguity/nearness of two objects, on the real association of the object of nomination with the object whose name is transferred

  • Metonymy can be lexical or contextual transfer of meaning

  • Synechdoche - naming the whole object by mentioning part of it: the school (pupils) went to the zoo.

  • Periphrasis – the replacement of a direct name of a thing or phenomenon by the description of some quality of this thing or phenomenon: oil=black gold, Kyiv – the city of chestnuts.

  • Euphemism - a replacement of and unpleasantly sounding word or phrase

  • Types of euphemism

  • 1. religious

  • God Lord, Goodness, Heaven, Almighty

  • Devil - the dickens, the deuce, Old Nick, Gentleman

  • 2. moral

  • to die = to join the majority, to pass away, to breathe one's last, to go West

  • dead = late, deceased, departed

  • We were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way. (Ch. Dickens)

  • 3.medical

  • mental hospital = lunatic asylum, mentally challenged = idiot

  • 4. political

  • relocation centres - concentration camps

  • incursion- invasion

  • anti-personnel weapons - bombs

  • conflict - war

  • Metonymy

  • 1. contiguity

  • 2. widening of lexical meaning (The hall applauded)

  • 3. one object doesn’t exclude the other

  • (the blue nose)

  • As a rule, metonymy is expressed by nouns (less frequently – by substantivized numerals) and is used in syntactical functions characteristic of nouns ( subject, object, predicative ).

  • 4. the function of identification/nomination (the theme)

  • The bottle-neck coloured.

  • Metaphor

  • 1. likeness/similarity

  • 2. narrowing of lexical meaning. (He is a bear)

  • 3. one image excludes the other (the sky lamp of the night = the moon)

  • 4. the predicative function (the rheme):

  • She was a fox. But this fox was especially cunning.

Metaphor can be expressed by all notional parts of speech . Metaphor functions in the sentence as any of its members .

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