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9.2. The Compound sentence as one of the main types of the composite sentences.

The compound sentence is a composite sentence built on the principle of coordination.

Coordination, the same as subordination, can be expressed either syndetically (by means of coordinative connectors) or asyndetically.

Similar semantic types of relations are to be found between independent, separate sentences forming a continual text. The compound sentence is derived from two or more base sentences which, as we have already stated above, are connected on the principle of coordination either syndetically or asyndetically. The base sentences joined into one compound sentence lose their independent status and become coordinate clauses — parts of a composite unity. The first clause is "leading" (the "leader" clause), the successive clauses are "sequential". This division is essential not only from the point of view of outer structure (clause-order), but also in the light of the semantico-syntactic content: it is the sequential clause that includes the connector in its composition, thus being turned into some kind of dependent clause, although the type of its dependence is not subordinative.

In the multi-clause compound sentence of a closed type the final part is joined on an unequal basis with the previous ones (or one), whereby a finalisation of the expressed chain of ideas is achieved.

The general characteristics of the compound sentence.

Criteria

Description

Examples

Invariant-sentences

2 or more predicative lines, independent parts, transformational index (Т conj.), coordinative connection between elements is realized:

  1. syndetically (coordinative conjunctions, connectives, conjunctiv adverbs);

  2. asyndetically;

The main models

1) clauses are united by coordinative conjunctions and, but, nor, neither or discontinuous connective words either … or; neither … nor

  1. The breeze blew and the yacht sailed fast.

  1. Ruth was watching him but he turned his eyes away.

  1. Either the letter never roached him or was too busy to answer.

2) clauses are united by functional words or conjunctive adverbs

thus, however, consequently, so, nevertheless.

The instruments were not checked so the date of the experiment were not reliable.

  1. clauses united asyndenically

The words ran together; her heart pounded.

expressed semantico –syntactic relations

  1. actions simultaneous

of the moment of speaking

The band played and the quests spoke in loud voices.

  1. actions taking in the

order of concession

The hostess came in and the quests rose to meet her

  1. the result:

he was nervous so his hands were shaking

  1. actions opposed to each other:

The proceedings of the symposium were closed. But nevertheless some of the delegates continued their discussion.

5) the main and attendant actions:

They sat out on the balcony and the moon was shining bright above the forest.

types of compound sentences

Of close structure

They waited a long time but he never came

Of open structure

The train drew up, the porters rushed on to

the platform, the passengers came out the

carriages, friends exchanged greetings…

Types of construction

parataxis (coordination)

Types of syntactic relations in the sentence

  1. Copulative coordination (соединительная связь), expressed by the conjunctions and, nor, neither... nor, not only... but (also).

It was a nice little place and Mr. and Mrs.

Witla were rather proud of it. (Dreiser)

Mr. Home did not lift his eyes from his

breakfast-plate for about two minutes,

nor did he speak. (Ch. Bronte)

  1. Disjunctive coordination (разделительная связь) expressed by the conjunctions or, else, or else, either... or, and the conjunctive adverb otherwise. By these a choice is offered between the statements expressed in two clauses.

He knew it to be nonsense or it would have

frightened him. (Galsworthy)

... either our union must be consecrated

and sealed by marriage or it cannot exist.

(Ch. Bronte)

3. Adversative coordination (противительная связь) expressed by the conjunctions but, while,1 whereas and the conjunctive adverbs nevertheless, still, yet. These are conjunctions and adverbs connecting two clauses contrasting in meaning.

The room was dark, but the street was

lighter because of its lamps. (Dickens)

He had a glass eye which remained

stationary, while the other eye looked

at Reinhardt. (Heym)

The old school-room was now a sitting

room... whereas one of the old nurseries

was now the

modern school-room. (Trollope) I was

not unhappy, not much afraid, yet I wept.

(Ch. Bronte)

4. Causative-consecutive coordination (причинно-следственная связь) expressed by the conjunctions for, so and the conjunctive adverbs therefore, accordingly, consequently, hence.

For introduces coordinate clauses explaining the preceding statement. Therefore, so, consequently, hence, accordingly introduce coordinate clauses denoting cause, consequence and result.

There was something amiss with Mr.

Lightwood, for he was strangely grave and

looked ill. (Dickens)

After all, the two of them belonged to the

same trade, so talk was easy and happy

between them. (Priestley)

Transformational potential

  1. Substitution // replacement

  1. The omission of the same finite verb

  1. Attendant actions to be expressed through the participial phrase

  1. He speaks French, so do I.

2) John went to Italy, his sister to Spain.

Mister Dell was a trifle paler,

his hair beginning to receed from

his forehead.

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