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Lecture 7 Topic : the simple sentence Points for discussion

7.1. The Simple sentence: its general characteristics. The principles of the classification of sentences.

7.2. The structure of the simple sentence. The general theory of parts of the sentence. The Subject. The Predicate. The Secondary parts of the sentence.

7.3. The communicative types of the sentences and their correlations.

7.4. Sentence analysis: the model of parts of the sentence, the distributional model, IC-model, the transformational model.

7.5. Semantic & communicative structures of the sentence.

LITERATURE

    1. Смирницкий А.И. Синтаксис английского языка. М., 1957.

    2. Бархударов Л.С. Структура простого предложения современного английского языка. М., 1996.

    3. Бархударов Л.С., Штелинг Д.А. Грамматика английского языка. – М., 1973.

    4. Ильиш Б.А. Строй современного английского языка. М., 1971

    5. Блох М.Я. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка. М., 1983.

    6. Хаймович Б.С., Роговская Б.И. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка. М., 1967.

    7. Иванова И.П., Бурлакова В.В., Почепцов Г.Г. Теоретическая грамматика современного английского языка. – М., 1981.

    8. Иофик Л.Л., Чахоян Л.П. Хрестоматия по теоретической грамматике английского языка. Л, 1972.

    9. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка. Задания и упражнения. Методическое пособие для студентов IV курса факультета английского языка. Минск, 1994.

    10. Quirk R., Greenbaum S., Leech G., Svartvick J. A University Grammar of English. M., 1982.

7.1. The simple sentence: its general characteristics. The principles of the classification of sentences.

7.1.1 The simple sentence and its general characteristics

In linguistics, a sentence is a grammatical and lexical unit consisting of one or more words, representing distinct and differentiated concepts, and combined to form a meaningful statement, question, request, command, etc

Sentences contain both semantic and logical elements (words, parts of speech), and also include action symbols that indicate sentence starts, stops, pauses, etc. In addition, sentences also contain properties distinct to natural language, such as characteristic intonation and timing patterns.

The basic predicative meanings of the typical English sentence are expressed by the finite verb which is immediately connected with the subject of the sentence. This predicative connection is commonly referred to as the "predicative line" of the sentence. Depending on their predicative complexity, sentences can feature one predicative line or several (more than one) predicative lines; in other words, sentences may be, respectively, "monopredicative" and "polypredicative".

The notional parts of the sentence referring to the basic elements of the reflected situation form, taken together, the nominative meaning of the sentence.

7.1.2. The principals of the classification of simple sentences.

Simple sentences may be classified from the following points:1) from the point of the presence of secondary parts of sentence. (extended / unextended sentences); 2) from the point of their regularity (major / minor sentences); 3) from the point of the purpose of communication (the declarative sentence; imperative (inducive) sentence; the interrogative sentence) speaker from the listener.

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