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1. Read the article again. Choose the best option a, b, c or d, to answer the questions or finish the statements below.

1. What are the implications of the appearance of guide books to Antarctica?

A They will attract even more tourists.

B They may encourage the wrong type of tourists

C They are an indication of the growth of tourisms.

D They give an exaggerated idea of the dangers.

2. The writer sees Antarctica as symbolic because it is

A untouched by man.

B unspoiled.

C timeless.

D empty.

3. The writer suggests that tourists visiting Antarctica

A travel in comfortable conditions.

B may be disappointed by how little they actually see.

C are not aware of its history and culture.

D have little effect on the environment.

4. People working in Antarctica

A are causing more damage than tourists.

B have developed their own lifestyle.

C travel over most of the continent.

D have to adapt their culture to the new environment.

5. The buildings at the American base in McMurdo

A are not well suited to the environment.

B are not attractive, but are practical.

C are sophisticated and comfortable.

D are typically American.

6. How does the writer feel about the changes that are taking place in Antarctica?

A She is generally positive about them.

B She feels they have led to unrealistic expectations.

C She is very concerned about their effects.

D She accepts they are necessary.

For information about articles and their use, read ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE by R. Murphy Units 71 - 77

  1. Fill in the gaps with the correct article if necessary

Given that 500 million tourists roam 1)____ world each year, I cannot disagree with the need to minimize 2) _____ impacts of tourism - but how should this be done? 3) ____Critics of mass tourism suggest that only low-volume, 'green' tourism should be allowed. Yet the irony is that 4) ____green tourists go to some of 5) ____ most ecologically sensitive spots on 6) ____earth, where their environmental impact may be just as severe. Others bemoan the social changes that come in the wake of tourism. But do local people want to stay as they are? Why should they not enjoy 7) ____ fruits of tourism? Tourism is in 8) ____many places actually keeping alive or even reviving 9) _____local traditions and crafts. Once, at 10) ____ South Pacific Tourism Conference, I warned delegates against allowing tourism to spoil paradise. 11) ____ islander retorted: 'My great grandfather was a cannibal and your Scottish missionaries converted him to Christianity. The social changes that 12) ____tourism will bring are small compared to that."

So, how the explosion of tourism should be managed? The travel industry can set standards in 13) ____ areas of 14) _____energy reduction, waste disposal and water savings. Many hotels now recycle waste and encourage energy efficiency. Increasingly, tourist destinations are realizing that inappropriate development may spoil their natural attractions – 15)____ Caribbean island of St. Lucia recently turned down a scheme to put 16)____ cable car and restaurant on 17) _____ top of its beautiful twin mountain peak, 18) ____ Pitons. A lot of little steps like these can, I believe, combine to create 19) ____ major change in 20) ____ practices.

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