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I. Decide whether the following statements are true or false according to the text:

1. The great military engineers of the 19-th century were drawn into grand tunneling.

2. The development of new kinds of transport created a need for tunnels.

3. By the early 1800s railways had become England’s primary commercial trade network.

4. The development of the protective shield made possible the construction of tunnels under rivers.

5. The first use of the shield was done by Isambard in 1825 under the Thames River.

6. The world’s first true subaqueous tunnel was completed in 1841.

7. The development of railroad and motor vehicle transportation accelerated the construction of tunnels.

8. Engineers must investigate ground conditions after the completion of the tunnel.

9. There are four basic steps in building a stable tunnel.

10. The endeav our involves a wide range of specialists.

II. Answer the questions.

1. Why were the engineers of the 19-th century drawn into grand tunneling?

2. What had become England’s primary commercial trade network by the early 1800s?

3. Who developed the protective shield?

4. When and where was the first use of the shield?

5. How much time did it take to build the world’s first true subaqueous tunnel?

6. What can engineers do using the latest tunnel construction technology?

7. How are ground conditions investigated?

8. What are the steps of tunneling?

9. When is excavation done?

10. Who is involved in tunneling?

LANGUAGE FOCUS

III. Match the words with their synonyms.

1. necessity a. grand

2. come to an end b. protect

3. pattern c. complete

4. plane d. basic

5. main e. need

6. fussy f. sample

7. great g. bustling

8. defend h. flat

IV. Match the words with their opposites.

1. mountainous a. add

2. deterioration b. create

3. first c. accelerate

4. unsteady d. flat

5. delay e. final

6. diminish f. improvement

7. ruin g. reliable

8. insecure h. stable

V. Fill in the prepositions.

1) to be drawn … sth; 2) a need … sth; 3) to succeed … sth; 4) to lead … sth; 5) to dig … sth; 6) … the search …; 7) to share the risk … sth.

VI. Insert the words from the list.

Techniques, combination, forced, mountain, notorious, railroad, long-distance, spectacular, succession, drainage, inflow

In the United States the first … tunnel was a 701-foot construction on the Allegheny Portage Railroad. Built in 1831-33 it was a … of canal and railroad systems carrying canal barges over a summit. Simultaneously more … railroad tunnels were being started through the Alps. Its engineer, A. Sommeiller, introduced many pioneering … . Ventilation became a major problem which was solved by the use of … air from water powered fans and a horizontal diaphragm at mid height. Most … rock tunnels have encountered problems with water inflows. One of the most … was the first Japanese Tanna Tunnel driven through the Takiji Peak in 1920. The engineers and crews had to cope with a long … of extremely large inflows the first of which killed 16 men and buried 17 others. Three years later another major … drowned several workers. In the end Japanese engineers hit on the expedient of digging a parallel … tunnel the entire length of the main tunnel. In addition, they resorted to compressed - air tunneling with shield and air lock a technique almost unheard - of in … tunneling.

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