Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
posobie_FTK_Mosty_Tonneli_28Parmenova_2CRadievskaya_29.doc
Скачиваний:
20
Добавлен:
26.03.2016
Размер:
4.29 Mб
Скачать

I. Decide whether the following statements are true or false according to the text:

1. Viaducts like bridges cross water.

2. Viaducts cross water and dry land instead of merely extending from one bank to the other.

3. Viaducts carry railroad tracks over valleys.

4. Viaducts are built on the same level on the land to carry railroads.

5. The Greeks built the first viaducts.

6. Parts of the longest viaducts were destroyed by an earthquake in 1925.

7. The spans of the viaduct over the River Tay are over 2 miles long.

8. Many agricultural societies have constructed aqueducts to supply large cities with water.

9. The famous Roman aqueducts were ruined long ago.

10. In California large aqueducts supply water to New-York.

II. Complete the sentences with the best answer:

1. Some viaducts can cross

a) water b) dry land c) cross water and dry land.

2. Most viaducts consist of a series of supports under

a) beam construction b) arch construction c) beam-and slab or arch construction.

3. Some viaducts are built higher than the level of the land to carry

a) bridges b) roads c) railroads or to make a safe crossing over railroads

4. The Tunkhannock viaduct is

a) 2,375 feet long b) 1,947 feet long c) 2,357 feet long.

5. Archimedes invented the water screw

a) to irrigate crops b) to supply large cities with drinking water

c) for transportation purposes

6. In California two aqueducts are from

a) the Colorado River b) the Oven River c) Mississipi River

7. In the past aqueducts often had channels made of

a) concrete b) polymers c) dirt.

8. In some cases a new aqueduct is built

a) alongside the old one b) over the old one c) under the old one.

III. Answer the questions:

1. What do viaducts cross?

2. What do they carry?

3. Why are some viaducts built higher than the general level of the land?

4. What did the ancient Romans build the first viaducts for?

5. What are the longest viaducts?

6. What is the use of aqueducts?

7. What were channels made of in the past?

8. Why is in some cases a new aqueduct built alongside the old one?

IV. Match these terms with their definitions

Aqueduct, viaduct.

1. Type of long bridge or series of bridges, usually supported by a series of arches or on spans between tall towers.

2. Man-made conduit for carrying water

LANGUAGE FOCUS

V. Translate the missing words

The (путепровод) is both functionall and etimologically (относился) to the aqueduct, which (переносят) water; both were developed by Roman engineers. In the early of 20-th century the spread of (железо-бетонных) (конструкций) led to the building of concrete (арочных) structures such as Colorado Street viaduct over the Pasadena Freeway in California. A recent method used on long viaducts is (сегментная конструкция).

The (водоснабжение) in New-York City comes from Thee main (система акведуков) that can (поставлять) from 1 800 000 000 gal. of water a day from (источников) up to 120 miles away. (Cистема акведуков) in the State of California is by far the largest in the world.

VI. Insert the words

Construction, arches, steel, system, span, distribution point, amount, surpass

1. The long spans of Roman viaducts were supported by semicircular …, resting on piers of stone or masonry.

2. A well-preserved example is the … over the Tapus River. At Alcantara, Spain.

3. The next advance in viaduct … did not occur until the late 18-th century development of iron bridges and the 19-th century introduction of … .

4. In modern engineering aqueduct refers to a … of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels and supporting structures used to convey water from its source to its main … .

5. Modern aqueducts, although lacking the arched grandeur of those built by the Romans, greatly … the earlier ones in length and in the … of water they can carry.

Тут вы можете оставить комментарий к выбранному абзацу или сообщить об ошибке.

Оставленные комментарии видны всем.