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I. Decide whether the following statements are true or false according to the text:

1. Cable-stayed bridges resemble cantilever bridges.

2. In cable-stayed bridge the cables that support the roadway are connected to the towers.

3. A cable-stayed bridge may be used when its foundation can support two towers.

4. Most cable-stayed bridges have 3 spans and two towers.

5. The cables may be linked from the roadway to the towers in several way.

6. If the cables are connected from a variety of points on the roadway to several points on the towers, they form a star pattern.

7. There are four types of moveable bridges.

8. A bascule bridge tilts backward to open.

9. A vertical lift bridge has a roadway that extends between two towers.

10. A swing bridge is mounted on a central tower.

II. Answer the questions:

1. What type of bridge do cable-stayed bridges resemble?

2. How are cables connected?

3. What is the design of most cable-stayed bridges?

4. When do the cables form a fan pattern?

5. When do the cables form a star pattern?

6. What are the types of moveable bridges?

7. How do bascule bridges operate?

8. Where is a roadway situated in a vertical lift bridge?

9. Where is a swing bridge mounted?

10. Why does it move sideways?

LANGUAGE FOCUS

III. Insert the words from the list:

cables, speed, anchorages repair, waterways, impractical, intermediate-length, variation, lower cost, replacement, traffic, costly, frame, spans

1. Cable-stayed bridges represent a ... of the suspension bridge.

2. A cable- stayed bridge is constructed in much the same way as a suspension bridge is, but without the main … .

3. Cable-stayed designs are used for … spans.

4. Advantages the cable-stayed bridge has over a standard suspension bridge include a … construction and … since … are not necessary.

5. There are no massive cables, as with suspension bridges, making cable … or …simpler.

6. Movable bridges are usually found over heavily traveled ….

7. A vertical-lift bridge consists of a rigid … held between two tall towers.

8. Moveable bridges are generally constructed over waterways where it is either … or too … to build bridges with high enough clearances for water … to pass underneath.

9. Vertical-lift bridges are useful for longer …, but they must be built so they can be lifted high enough for tall ships to pass underneath.

IV. Fill the correct preposition:

to hang … sth, to be connected … sth, to be linked … sth, to extend … sth, the top … sth, to be attached … sth … sth, to be mounted … sth

V. Fill in the gaps with a suitable derivations of the word given on the right:

Cable-stayed bridges offer a … of possibilities to the designer regarding the … arrangement of the cables. Early examples used just two cables fastened at … the same point high on the tower and fanning out to support the deck at … separated points. By contrast in the Oberkasseler Bridge the four cables were placed in a parallel …. The Bonn-Nord Bridge was the first to use a large number of … cables instead of relatively few but … ones. The … advantage being that, with more cables a thinner deck might be used. Such multicable arrangements … became quite common. The Pasco-Kennewick Bridge in Washington state was designed in … with the German firm. Its cost was not significantly… from those of other … with more … design.

vary

geometry

near

wide

arrange

thin

heavy, technique

subsequent

collaborate

differ, propose,

convection

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