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UNIT

45 Have something done

A Study this example situation:

The roof of Jill’s house was damaged in a storm, so she arranged for somebody to repair it. Yesterday a workman came and did the job.

Jill had the roof repaired yesterday.

This means: Jill arranged for somebody else to repair the roof. She didn’t repair it herself.

We use have something done to say that we arrange for somebody else to do something for us. Compare:

Jill repaired the roof. (= she repaired it herself)

Jill had the roof repaired. (= she arranged for somebody else to repair it) Study these sentences:

Did Ann make the dress herself or did she have it made?

• ‘Are you going to repair the car yourself?’ ‘No, I’m going to have it repaired.’

Be careful with word order. The past participle (repaired/cut etc.) is after the object (the roof / your hair etc.):

 

have

+

object

+

past participle

 

Jill

had

 

the roof

 

repaired

yesterday.

Where

did you have

your hair

 

cut?

 

Your hair looks nice.

Have you had

it

 

cut?

in her house.

Julia

has just had

central heating

installed

We

are having

 

the house

 

painted

at the moment.

How often

do you have

your car

 

serviced?

soon.

I think you should

have

 

that coat

 

cleaned

I don’t like

having

 

my photograph

taken.

 

BYou can also say ‘get something done’ instead of ‘have something done’ (mainly in informal spoken English):

When are you going to get the roof repaired? (= have the roof repaired)

I think you should get your hair cut.

CSometimes have something done has a different meaning. For example:

Jill and Eric had all their money stolen while they were on holiday.

Of course this does not mean that they arranged for somebody to steal their money. ‘They had all their money stolen’ means only: ‘All their money was stolen from them.’

With this meaning, we use have something done to say that something happens to somebody or their belongings. Usually what happens is not nice:

George had his nose broken in a fight.

Have you ever had your passport stolen?

90

EXERCISES

Tick (S) the correct sentence, (a) or (b), for each picture.

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUE

 

SARAH '

 

 

 

|JO H N

 

 

a

Sarah is cutting

a

Bill is cutting his

a

John is cleaning

a

Sue is taking a

 

her hair.

 

hair.

 

his shoes,

 

photograph,

b

Sarah is having

b

Bill is having his

b

John is having his

b

Sue is having her

 

her hair cut.

 

hair cut.

 

shoes cleaned.

 

photograph taken.

Why did you do these things? Answer using ‘have something done’. Use one o f these verbs:

clean cut repair service

1 Why did you takeyour car to the garage? ...To haye.it.serviced...

2Why did you take your jacket to the cleaner’s? T o

3Why did you take your watch to the jeweller’s?..... .......................................................................

4Why did you go to the hairdresser? ................................................................................................................................................................

Write sentences in the way shown.

1 Jill didn’t repair the roof herself. She ...had it repaired,..

2I didn’t cut my hair myself. I ........................................................................................................

3They didn’t paint the house themselves. They ...........................................................................

4Sue didn’t make the curtains herself. ...........................................................................................

U*e the words in brackets to complete the sentences. Use the structure ‘have something done’.

1

We ...are.having the house painted... (the house / paint) at the moment.

2

I lost my key. I’ll have to

(another key / make).

3

When was the last time you

(your hair / cut)?

4

You look different

(you / your hair / cut)?

5

do...............................................................................you go to the shop to buy one?

(you / a newspaper / deliver) to your house or

 

 

6

What are those workmen doing in your garden?

 

B: Oh, w e ....................................................................

(a swimming pool / build).

 

Can I see the photographs you took when you were on holiday?

 

B: I’m afraid I ....................................................................

(not / the film / develop) yet.

3

This coat is dirty. I must

(it / clean).

9

If you want to wear earrings, why don’t you ....................................................................

(your

 

ears / pierce) ?

 

\o w you have to use ‘have something done’ with its second meaning (see Section C).

1 George’s nose was broken in a fight.

What happened to George? ...He had his nose. broken in a.fight,..

2Sarah’s bag was stolen on a train.

What happened to Sarah? She..........................................................................................................

Fred’s hat was blown off in the wind.

Whar happened to Fred?..................................................................................................................

-Diane’s passport was taken away from her by the police.

What happened to Diane?................................................................................................................

Reported speech (1) (He said th a t...)

Study this example situation:

(I'm feeling ill.

 

Compare:

 

 

direct:

Tom said

am

 

id'?

TT

reported:

Tom said that he

was

You want to tell somebody else what Tom said

There are two ways of doing this:

You can repeat Tom’s words (direct speech):

Tom said ‘I’m feeling ill.’

Or you can use reported speech: Tom said that he was feeling ill.

feeling ill.’ In writing we use these to show direct

speech.

feeling ill.

When we use reported speech, the main verb of the sentence is usually past (Tom said that... /

I told her that... etc.). The rest of the sentence is usually past too:

Tom said that he was feeling ill.

I told her that I didn’t have any money.

You can leave out that:

• Tom said (that)

he was feeling ill.

• I told her (that) I didn’t have any money.

In general, the present form in direct speech changes to the past form in reported speech:

am/is —> was

do/does —» did

will —» would

are —> were

have/has —» had

can —> could

want/like/know/go etc. —» wanted/liked/knew/went etc.

Compare direct speech and reported speech:

You met Judy. Here are some of the things she said to you in direct speech:

1-------------------------------------------------------------------

i

‘My parents are very well.’

I

‘I’m going to learn to drive.’

j

‘John has given up his job.’

 

‘I can’t come to the party on Friday.’

‘I want to go away for a holiday but

I don’t know where to go.’

‘I’m going away for a few days. I’ll phone you when I get back.’

Later you tell somebody what Judy said.

You use reported speech:

Judy said that her parents were very well.

She said that she was going to learn to drive.

She said that John had given up his job.

She said that she couldn’t come to the party on Friday.

She said that she wanted to go away for a holiday but (she) didn’t know where to go.

She said that she was going away for a few days and would phone me when she got back.

The past simple (did/saw/knew etc.) can usually stay the same in reported speech, or you can change it to the past perfect (had done / had seen / had known etc.):

direct

Tom said: ‘I woke up feeling ill, so I didn’t go to work.’

reported

Tom said (that) he woke up feeling ill, so he didn’t go to work, or

 

Tom said (that) he had woken up feeling ill, so he hadn’t gone to work.

Reported speech (2) *■m u t t f

Reported questions -*• unit 49B

EXERCISES

Yesterday you met a friend o f yours, Charlie. Here are some o f the things Charlie said to you:

1I’m living in London now,

2My father isn’t very well.

3Sharon and Paul are getting married next month.

4Margaret has had a baby.

5I don’t know what Fred is doing.

6I saw Helen at a party in June and she seemed fine.

7I haven’t seen Diane recently.

8I’m not enjoying my job very much.

9You can come and stay at my flat if you are ever in London.

10 My car was stolen a few weeks ago.

I want to go on holiday but I can’t afford it.

12 I’ll tell Ann I saw you.

Later that dav you tell another friend what Charlie said. Use reported speech.

1 Charlie sa jd. th a t he was J jving in London, now.

2He said that

3H e................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Somebody says something to you which is the opposite o f what they said before. Write a suitable answer beginning I thought you said... .

1A: That restaurant is expensive.

B:Is it? ...! thought you.said it was cheap,.

2

A: Ann is coming to the p arty tonight.

 

 

B: Is she? I thought you said sh e ...................

.............................................................

3

A: Ann likes Paul.

 

 

B: Does she? I thought............................................................................................................

 

4

A: I k n o w lo ts o f p eop le.

 

 

B: Do you? I thought you said you.......................................................................................

 

5

A: I’ll b e h ere n ex t w eek .

 

 

B:

Will you? .............................................................................................................................

 

6

A:

I’m g o in g o u t this evening.

 

 

B:

Are you?....................................................................................................................

 

A:I can speak a little French.

B:Can you?..............................................................................................................................

SI haven’t been to the cinema for ages.

B:Haven’t you?.......................................................................................................................

TELL SOMEBODY
SAY SO

UNIT

47 Reported speech (2)

AIt is not always necessary to change the verb when you use reported speech. If you report something and it is still true, you do not need to change the verb:

direct Tom said ‘New York is more lively than London.’

reported Tom said that New York is more lively than London.

(New York is still more lively. The situation hasn’t changed.)

direct Ann said ‘I want to go to New York next year.’ reported Ann said that she wants to go to New York next year.

(Ann still wants to go to New York next year.)

Note that it is also correct to change the verb into the past:

Tom said that New York was more lively than London.

Ann said that she wanted to go to New York next year.

But you must use a past form when there is a difference between what was said and what is really true. Study this example situation:

You met Sonia a few days ago.

Jim is ill.)

She said: ‘Jim is ill.’ (direct speech)

 

YOU

\ ) SONIA

Later that day you see Jim. He is looking well and carrying a tennis racket.

You say:

‘I didn’t expect to see you, Jim. Sonia

Sonia said

you were ill.

said you were ill.’

 

(not ‘ Sonia said you are ill’, because

 

clearly he is not ill.)

YOU

BSay and tell

If you say who you are talking to, use tell:

• Sonia told me that you were ill. (not ‘Sonia said me’)

• What did you tell the police? (not ‘say the police’) Otherwise use say:

• Sonia said that you were ill. (not ‘Sonia told that...’)

• What did you say?

But you can ‘say something to somebody’:

Ann said goodbye to me and left, (not ‘Ann said me goodbye’)

What did you say to the police?

CTell/ask somebody to do something

We also use the infinitive (to do / to stay etc.) in reported speech, especially with tell and ask (fc orders and requests):

direct ‘Stay in bed for a few days,’ the doctor said to me. reported The doctor told me to stay in bed for a few days.

direct ‘Don’t shout,’ I said to Jim. reported I told Jim not to shout.

direct ‘Please don’t tell anybody what happened,’ Ann said to me. reported Ann asked me not to tell anybody what (had) happened.

...said to do something’ is also possible:

The doctor said to stay in bed for a few days, (but not ‘The doctor said me...’)

94

Reported speech (1) * LUNITflH46y

Reported questions > UNIT 49B

EXERCISES

.1 Here are some things that Ann said to you:

 

i I’ve never been to the United States. ]

^ I d on’t have any brothers or sisters.)

 

J l can’t drive.)

aJ ^ d of

don’t like fish.) j

ANN

N (I’m working tomorrow evening.^

Jane has a very well-paid job.)

 

But later Ann says something different to you. What do you say?__________ ^ vou

1

Dave works very hard.

2

Let’s have fish for dinner.

3

I’m going to buy a car.

4

Jane is always short of money.

5

My sister lives in London.

6

I think New York is a fantastic place.

 

Let’s go out tomorrow evening.

 

I’ve never spoken to Jane.

But you said.he was.jazy,...

-2 Complete the sentences with say or tell (in the correct form). Use only one word each time.

1

Ann ...said...

goodbye to me and left.

 

 

2

........................

us about your holiday. Did you have a nice time?

 

3

Don’t just stand there!........................

something!

 

4

I wonder where Sue is. She........................

she would be here at 8 o’clock.

5

Jac k

me that he was fed up with his job.

 

6

The doctor........................

that I should rest for at least a week.

 

7

Don’t ........................

anybody what I .........................

It’s a secret just between us.

8

‘Did she........................

you what happened?’ ‘No, she didn’t .....................

anything to me.’

9

George couldn’t help me. H e ........................

me to ask Kate.

 

10

George couldn’t help me. H e ........................

to ask Kate.

 

J (Section C) The following sentences are direct speech:

 

(Don’t wait for me if I’mlatlT)

( Will you m arry^T )

(Hurry up!

(Can you open your bag, please?)

(Please slow down!

( Don t worry, Sue?)

Mind your own business.)

( Could you repeat what you said, please?

( Do you think you could give me a hand, Tom?

\o w choose one of these to complete each sentence below. Use reported speech.

1 Bill was taking a long time to get ready, so I ...told.him to.hurry up.....

2Sarah was driving too fast, so I asked ....................................................................

3Sue was very pessimistic about the situation. I told ............................................

4I couldn’t move the piano alone, so I ......................................................................

5 The customs officer looked at me suspiciously an d ..............................................

6I had difficulty understanding him, so I

I didn’t want to delay Ann, so I .................................................................................................................................................

8John was very much in love with Mary, so he

9He started asking me personal questions, s o .......................................................................................

AV + S

U N IT

48 Questions (1)

We usually make questions by changing the word order: we put the first auxiliary verb (AV) before the subject (S):

s + ^ V

Tom

will

—>

will

Tom?

Will Tom be here tomorrow?

you

have

 

have

you?

Have you been working hard?

I

can

—>

can

I?

What can I do? (not ‘What I can do?’)

the house

was

—>

was

the house?

When was the house built?

 

 

 

 

 

(not ‘When was built the house?’)

B In present simple questions, we use do/does:

you

live

—>

do

you live?

Do you live near here?

the film

begins

—>

does

the film begin?

What time does the film begin? (not ‘What

 

 

 

 

 

 

time begins...?’)

In past simple questions, we use did:

you

sold

did

you sell?

Did you sell your car?

the accident

happened

did

the accident happen?

How did the accident happen?

But do not use do/does/did in questions if who/what/which is the subject of the sentence.

Compare:

who object

 

who subject

Emma telephoned somebody.

Somebody telephoned Emma.

i-----object ---------

1

subject------

Who did Emma telephone?

Who telephoned Emma?

In these examples, who/what/which is the subject:

Who wants something to eat? (not ‘Who does want’)

What happened to you last night? (not ‘What did happen’)

Which bus goes to the city centre? (not ‘Which bus does go’)

Note the position of prepositions in questions beginning Who/What/Which/Where...?:

Who do you want to speak to?

What was the weather like yesterday?

Which job has Jane applied for?

Where do you come from?

Negative questions (isn’t it...? / didn’t you...?)

We use negative questions especially to show surprise:

• Didn’t you hear the bell? I rang it four times, or when we expect the listener to agree with us:

‘Haven’t we met somewhere before?’

‘Yes, I think we have.’

Isn’t it a beautiful day! (= It’s a beautiful day, isn’t it?)

Note the meaning of yes and no in answers to negative questions:

 

Don’t you want to go to the party

? 1

Yes. (= Yes, I want to go)

 

1

No. (= No, I don’t want to go)

Note the word order in negative questions beginning Why...?:

Why don’t we go out for a meal tonight? (not ‘Why we don’t...’)

Why wasn’t Mary at work yesterday? (not ‘Why Mary wasn’t...’)

9 6

Questions (2) -> U N I T 49

EXERCISES

Ask Liz questions. (Look at her answers before you write the questions.)

1 (where / from?) ..Where are^ou from?.

From London originally.

2

(where / live / now?) Where................

In Manchester.

3

(married?).............................................

Yes.

4

(how long / married?)..........................

12 years.

5

(children?).............................................

Yes, three boys.

6

(how old / they?)...........

4, 7 and 9.

7

(what / husband / do?).........................

He’s a policeman.

 

(he / enjoy his job?)..............................

Yes, very much.

 

(arrest anyone yesterday?)

I don’t know.

 

 

10

(how often / go / on holiday?).

Usually once a year.

11

(where / next year?).................

We don’t know yet.

Make questions with w h o or w h at.

 

1

Somebody hit me.

W hphjtypu?

2

I hit somebody.

. Who did you h it? .

3

Somebody gave me the key.

Who.....................

4

Something happened.

What....................

5

Diane told me something.

 

6This book belongs to somebody.

7Somebody lives in that house.

8

I fell over something.

9

Something fell on the floor.

10This word means something.

11I borrowed the money from somebody.

12I’m worried about something.

Put the words in brackets in the correct order. All the sentences are questions.

1 (when / was / built / this house)...When was th is .house built?

2(how / cheese / is / m ade)....................................................................................

3(when / invented / the computer / w as)............................................................

4(why / Sue / working / isn’t / today)..................................................................

5(what time / coming / your friends / are) ..........

6(why / was / cancelled / the concert) .................................................................

7(where / your mother / was / born)....................................................................

8(why / you / to the party / didn’t / come)..........................................................

9(how/ the accident / did / happen)....................................................................

10(why / this machine / doesn’t / work) ...............................................................

Write negative questions from the words in brackets. In each situation you are surprised.

1 A: We won’t see Ann this evening.

B: Why not? (she / not / come / to the party?) ...Is.h.T.she cpnijrig to the party?

2A: I hope we don’t meet Brian tonight.

B:Why? (you / not / like / him?) ...........................................................................................

3A: Don’t go and see that film.

B:Why not? (it / not / good)..................................................................................................

4 A: I’ll h ave to b o rro w so m e m o n ey .

B: Why? (you / not / have / any?)..........................................................................................

UNIT

49 Questions (2) (Do you know w h e re ...? / She asked me w h ere ...)

AWhen we ask for information, we often say Do you know...? / Could you tell me...? etc. If you begin a question like this, the word order is different from a simple question.

Compare:

Where has Tom gone?

(simple question)

X ,

[not ‘Do you know where has Tom gone?’)

but Do you know where Tom has gone?

When the question (Where has Tom gone?) is part of a longer sentence (Do you know...? /

I don’t know... / Can you tell me...? etc.), it loses the normal question word order. Compare:

• What time is it?

but

Who is that woman?

Where can I find Linda?

How much will it cost?

Be careful with do/does/did questions:

Do you know what time it is?

I don’t know who that woman is.

Can you tell me where I can find Linda?

Have you any idea how much it will cost?

What time does the film begin?

 

but Do you know what time the film begins?

What do you mean?

 

[not ‘Do you know what time does...’)

 

Please explain what you mean.

• Why did Ann leave early?

 

I wonder why Ann left early.

Use if or whether where there is no other question word (what, why etc.):

 

• Did anybody see you?

but

Do you know if (or whether) anybody saw you?

BThe same changes in word order happen in reported questions: direct The police officer said to us, ‘Where are you going reported The police officer asked us where we were going • direct Clare said, ‘What time do the banks close

reported Clare wanted to know what time the banks closed .

In reported questions, the verb usually changes to the past (were, closed). See Unit 46.

Study these examples. You had an interview for a job and these were some of the questions the interviewer asked you:

a,

j How old

f What do you do

^

. / a r e you?

in your spare time?

 

"^^Why did you apply for the job? 1

INTERVIEWER

^Have you got a driving licence? )

How long have you been working in your present job?

 

1

Can you speak any

YOU

foreign languages?

 

Later you tell a friend what the interviewer asked you. You use reported speech:

She asked (me) how old I was.

She wanted to know what I did in my spare time.

• She asked (me) how long I had been working in my present job.

• She asked (me) why I had applied for the job. (or ...why I applied)

• She wanted to know whether (or if) I could speak any foreign languages.

• She asked whether (or if) 1 had a driving licence, (or ...I had got...)

98

EXERCISES

Make a new sentence from the question in brackets.

1

(Where has Tom gone?)

Do you know ...where ToniI.has gone?

2

(Where is the post office?)

Could you tell me where................

3

(What’s the time?) I wonder........................................................

 

4

(What does this word mean?)

I want to know ..........................

5

(What time did they leave?)

 

Do you know.................................

6

(Is Sue going out tonight?)

I don’t know ....

7

(Where does Carol live?)

Have you any idea.............................

8

(Where did I park the car?)

 

I can’t remember............................

9

(Is there a bank near here?)

 

Can you tell m e .............................

10

(What do you want?)

Tell me ......................................................

 

11

(Why didn’t Kay come to the party?)

I don’t know..................

12

(Do you have to pay to park here?)

Do you know...................

13

(Who is that woman?)

I’ve no idea

.......... .......................

14

(Did Ann receive my letter?)

Do you know ...............................

15

(How far is it to the airport?)

Can you tell m e..........................

2You are making a phone call. You want to speak to Sue but she isn’t there. Somebody else answers the phone. You want to know three things:

(1)Where has she gone? (2) When will she be back? and (3) Did she go out alone?

Complete the conversation:

A: Do y o u k n o w w h e r e ....................................................................................

(p?

B: Sorry, I’ve got no idea.

 

A: Never mind. I don’t suppose you know...................................................................

(2).

B: No, I’m a fra id not.

 

A: One more thing. Do you happen to know...................................................................

(3)?

B: I’m a fra id I d id n ’t see h er g o ou t.

 

A: OK. Well, thank you anyway. Goodbye.

 

3You have been away for a while and have just come back to your home town. You meet Gerry, a friend of yours. He asks you a lot of questions:

UNIT

49

1 (How are you?

5 (Where areyou living?]

j j why did you come back?)

2 [Where have you been?

 

 

 

7J Are you glad to be back?)

3 (How long have you been back?

 

 

 

~~8~( Do you have any plans to go away again?)

4 (w hat are you doing no

w

g e r r y

9 [ Can you lend me some money? J

Now you tell another friend what Gerry asked you. Use reported speech.

1 ....H.e asked me how I.was.

2He asked m e

3H e ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4

5

6

9 9

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