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Simple English Grammar.doc
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Adlinks Слова категории состояния

Слова категории состояния или прилагательные, употребляющиеся в составе сказуемого возникли в среднеанглийский период из сочетания предлога и существительного, например:

on + fire = afire

on + sleep = asleep

Они обозначают состояние предмета, выраженного подлежащим и употребляются в предложении только как часть составного сказуемого, т.е. после глагола (чаще всего глагола to be) и не употребляются в качестве определения перед существительными.

К ним относится ряд прилагательных, начинающихся на a-:

ablaze, adrift, afloat, afraid, aghast, ajar, alike, alight, alive, alone, amiss, ashamed, askew, asleep, astir, astray, averse, awake, aware, awash

E.g. The lamps were alight. − Лампы горели.

John was asleep. − Джон спал.

При необходимости в качестве определения при существительном либо используются другие прилагательные со сходным значением, либо прилагательные, употребляющиеся только в составе сказуемого, ставятся после существительного.

E.g. He was afraid. − Он был испуган.

He has a frightened look. − У него испуганный вид.

These vases are alike. − Эти вазы похожи.

We bought similar vases. − Мы купили похожие вазы.

Modal Words Модальные слова

К числу модальных слов относятся непосредственно модальные глаголы (can, may, ought (to), must, could, might, shall, should, will, would, need, dare), которые не употребляются самостоятельно, а только в сочетании с инфинитивом без частицы to смыслового (основного) глагола и модальные наречия, такие как perhaps, surely, obviously, maybe и др. Модальные слова выражают вероятность, необходимость, возможность, желательность совершения действия, выраженного основным глаголом.

Exercises

Exercise 1. People often react to certain situations by using sounds rather than words, and people from different countries often use different sounds.

Giddyup!

There, there

Boo!

Well?

Whoah! (Whoa!)

Eh?

Mm!

Gotcha!

Whoops!

Wow!

Sh!

Whoops-a-daisy!

What do you say if you …

  1. … see someone fall, drop something, or make a small mistake?

  2. … want someone to repeat something because you did not hear it?

  3. … shout suddenly to someone as a joke in order to frighten them?

  4. … see someone, usually a child, fall down?

  5. … want to express spontaneous delight?

  6. … want to tell someone to become calmer or to do something more slowly or stop?

  7. … want to tell someone to be quiet?

  8. … want to ask someone to answer a question you have asked them, when you are angry with them?

  9. … want to say a word meaning 'I understand'?

  10. … want to comfort someone who is crying, especially a child?

  11. … think something is very impressive or surprising?

  12. … want to make horses go faster?

Hear, hear

Cheers

Gosh!

Gee!

Now, now

Er

Ta-ta

Ouch!

Tut-tut

Hi!

Ta

Oi!

What do you say if you …

  1. … want to show that you are surprised or annoyed?

  2. … want to say (when you lift a glass of alcohol before you drink it) that you hope the people you are drinking with will be happy and have good health?

  3. … want to say goodbye casually to a friend?

  4. … want to express surprise?

  5. … want to make someone calm or comfort them when they are angry, upset etc?

  6. … want to thank a friend casually?

  7. … see someone trying to steal your bag?

  8. … want to show that you feel sudden pain?

  9. … want to greet a friend casually?

  10. … want to say that you agree with what the speaker is saying in a discussion or meeting?

  11. … want to show that you do not know exactly what to say next?

  12. … want to show disapproval (you make this sound by touching the top of your mouth with your tongue)?

Exercise 2. Underline and define all the conjunctions in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian / Ukrainian.

1. I am glad to recollect now that my mother cried too, and that I felt her heart beat against mine. 2. When we woke the sun was shining in at the window. 3. The waterfall was so talked about that we decided to go and see it on our way. 4. The book was still where I had put it the day before. 5. Don't come till I call you. 6. If you want to have a good laugh, go to see that picture. 7. Make haste or you will be late. 8. Although it was late, we did not stop working. 9. Since you have come, let us do the work now. 10. The morning's sunshine faded amid slow-gathering clouds, but something of its light seems still to linger in the air and to touch the rain which is falling softly. 11. My belief is that you are right. 12. Take your raincoat, for it may rain. 13. I shall ring you up as soon as I come home. 14. Neither John nor Emma is at home. 15. Either rain or snow is going to fall. 16. Leave me a note in case I am not at home. 17. Supposing you are right, what follows? 18. As long as you find pleasure in it, it is all right. 19. Seeing that he has come, why shouldn't we settle the matter now? 20. I shall come unless I have some urgent work to do. 21. It looks as if it were going to snow. 22. The girl did as she was told. 23. Women in pre-revolutionary Russia had no right to take part in elections either directly or indirectly.

Exercise 3. Translate into Russian / Ukrainian paying special attention to adlinks.

1. New England is ablaze with color in autumn. 2. They were spotted after three hours adrift in a dinghy. 3. Three hours is a long time to try to stay afloat in these conditions. 4. She tried to think about the future without feeling afraid. 5. Tania stared at him aghast, unable to speak. 6. She had left the window ajar that morning. 7. The girls dressed alike in black pants and jackets. 8. She paused and turned, her face was alight with happiness. 9. Hopes of finding anyone still alive were fading. 10. He found himself alone in a hostile world. 11. There was something amiss about his calculations. 12. I am not ashamed to be seen with them. 13. There were no shutters at the windows, and some of the doors hung askew. 14. My four year-old daughter was asleep on the sofa. 15. He woke before anyone else was astir. 16. We went astray but a man redirected us. 17. He's not averse to publicity, of the right kind. 18. The noise might keep you awake at night. 19. Most people are aware of the dangers of sunbathing. 20. The bathroom floor was awash.

Exercise 4. Read the sentences and state to what part of speech each word in bold type belongs. Translate them into Russian / Ukrainian.

1. We have received a wire from Venice. Wire me as soon as you arrive in Naples. The electric current passes through a wire. 2. I iron my clothes with an iron. The iron bars were covered with rust. Iron is heavy. 3. Let him drive as quick as possible. We had a long drive in a car. 4. I smoke a pipe. Let us have a smoke. 5. Your hat wants a brush. I brush my hair with a hair-brush. 6. We saw a ship in full sail. Let us sail to the nearest island. 7. You have got wet paint on the back of your coat. Now let's paint. 8. The night deepened and dew wet the trampled grass under them. 9. He bicy­cled in daily, and the daily ride to and fro had become a great pleas­ure to him. 10. Tell me the addresses and I'll write several letters at one go. 11. I shall leave here tomorrow. 12. The cottages of Penny Green had been built by people who not only intended to live in them but wanted them to be roomy and well-cupboarded and stoutly beamed and floored. 13. The draper's shop would not only dress you, post-office you; linoleum you, rug and wallpaper you; ink, pencil and note-paper you; but would also bury you and tombstone you. 14. He headed the movement. He has a good head. He is head boy in the class. 15. I stayed on deck. I had a deck cabin. It was gaily decked with flowers. 16. Paper the walls with white paper. 17. You must ship the cargo in a large ship. 18. The ball went over my head and in trying to catch it I fell over. 19. I must second your effort. 20. He has promised to forward your letters: they will be sent forward. He is a forward boy for his age. 21. Take the cart back to the back yard and back it into the shed at the back of the stable. 22. Light the lamp. The lamp gives a poor light. 23. All of a sudden the wind fell, and in the quiet he could hear the voices of people on the shore. 24. The leaves were thick upon the trees, and heavy with wet. 25. I reached home after dark, drenched to the skin.

Exercise 5. Point out the part-of-speech qualification of the artificial word abcid and its derivatives in the following sentences.

1. You are talking like an abcid. 2. The book was so abciding that I read it twice without an interval. 3. Why is Abcid playing the piano now? She should be reading for an exam. 4. To our satisfaction everything was done quite abcidly and we could go on with our task. 5. My friend abcids to his native town every year. 6. She stood abcid, her eyes half closed. 7. From where we stood, we could abcid everything going on in the court. 8. About these abcids, you’ll excuse me, but I am at a loss what to do with them. 9. She was an abcid girl with plump cheeks and big round eyes. 10. Jim was so happy to find her so abcid that day. 11. You are stupid as a child, and that is abciding a great deal. 12. Oh, what’s that? Abcid? 13. Much abcid has been wasted without any definite results obtained.

Exercise 6. Define all parts of speech in the following sentences.

1. It was a very fine evening, and my mother and he had another stroll by the sweet-briar, while I was sent in to get my tea.

2. The morning, which had been bright and clear, gradually became overcast: a sharp wind set in, the rain fell heavily; and a dark mist drooping over the distant town hid it from view.

3. Florence had often wished to speak to this man, yet she had never taken courage to do so, as he made no movement towards her. (D i c k e n s)

4. Her duties discharged, and the poor house made quite neat and orderly, she counted her little stock of money with an anx­ious face, and went out thoughtfully to buy some necessaries for their table, planning and contriving, as she went, how to save. (Dickens)

5. It had been a fine bright day but it had become foggy, as the sun dropped, and I had to feel my way back among the shipping pretty carefully. As it was a raw evening and I was cold, I thought I would comfort myself with dinner at once. (Dickens)

6. One day towards the end of August, he took Antonia on the river that like soft music soothes the land. He paddled slowly, silent and absorbed, watching Antonia. The brim of her linen hat kept the sun from her face, but her head was drooping like a flower's head at noon. He saw that the heat was really harming her, as too hot a day will harm the icy freshness of a northern plant. He dipped his oars, the ripples started out, and swam till they touched the bank. He caught the branches of an overhanging tree. The boat rested, balancing like a living thing. (Galsworthy)

7. He discovered one morning that an idea had come to him for making a series of water-colour drawings of London. He decided to begin with the Botanical Gardens, where he had already made so many studies and chose the little artificial pond, sprinkled now with an autumn shower of red and yellow leaves, for though the gardeners longed to sweep them off, they could not reach them with their brooms.

The rest of the garden they swept bare enough, removing every morning Nature's rain of leaves; piling them in heaps, from which rose the sweet, acrid smoke that is the true emblem of autumn.

But on the little pond the leaves floated in peace, the sunlight shining over them. (Galsworthy)

Exercise 7. Give at least 5 your own examples of the following parts of speech:

the noun, the numeral, the verb, the modal word, the adjective, the pronoun, the adverb, the conjunction, the preposition, the interjection, the adlink.

Exercise 8. Name the parts of speech in the following sentences. Translate into Russian / Ukrainian.

A. 1. My friend’s son was discussing the height of Mount Everest. 2. My young niece was given a very much wanted puppy for a present. 3. It is difficult to find a nice place to stay a night in. 4. I like the idea of going there for a weekend. 5. He was always first to spot interesting things lying on the pavement. 6. Two of us had to ride a horse for the first time in their lives. 7. There’s nothing particular about a woman doing a man’s job nowadays. 8. Our grandfathers must have resented the idea of marrying a chimney-sweeper or a bus-conductor. 9. One afternoon some friends rang up Susan and Derek to invite them out for the evening at Maxim’s at 8 o’clock. 10. By staying away from school we are helping to ease the problem of overcrowded classrooms.

B. 1. It was not pleasant for me to pretend to know nothing. 2. It's no good your saying so when you have no proof what­ever. 3. The safe was supposed to have been left open by negligence. 4. She was left penniless after her father's death. 5. It is all right for me to go and tell him. 6. It was bound to happen one of these days. 7. They were heard discussing some­thing in whisper on the landing. 8. The matter was consid­ered closed. 9. For her to praise one of us was a most unusual thing. 10. The car was found later slightly damaged. 11. She was appointed secretary to the head of the department. 12. From time to time they were seen dancing in the hall.