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Нулевой артикль Zero article

В современном английском языке артикль отсутствует (т.е. является «нулевым») в следующих случаях:

1. перед неисчисляемыми существительными:

E.g. I like cheese and milk.

The socks are made of wool.

Love is a wonderful feeling.

2. перед исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе, когда то же существительное, стоящее в единственном числе, было бы употреблено с неопределенным артиклем.

E.g. We are pupils. (I am a pupil.)

These are cups. (This is a cup.)

He told the child fairy-tales. (He told the child a fairy-tale.)

They are pianists. (He is a pianist.)

3. перед именами собственными (имена людей, звания и титулы, географические названия, клички животных и т.д.)

E.g. I met Benny yesterday.

Our teacher is Miss Brown.

Europe and Asia make one continent.

Rex is my dog.

4. с существительными, перед которыми есть:

а) притяжательные местоимения; I see his car. This is my pen.

б) указательные местоимения; I like this book.

в) другое существительное в притяжательном падеже; This is Ann’s friend.

г) количественное числительное; I have two cats and one rabbit.

5. с существительными, за которым следует количественное числительное, обозначающее номер:

E.g. He lives in flat 5.

Do exercise 12 on page 45;

room 408;

flight 184

6. если перед существительным есть отрицательное слово no:

E.g. I have no sisters. He has no father.

7. перед существительными, употребляемыми в предложении в значении обращения:

E.g. Good morning, sweet child! How’s life, old friend?

8. перед существительными, обозначающими названия времен года и приемов пищи:

E.g. Summer is my favourite season.

She usually has lunch at the institute.

When winter comes, it gets cold.

9. в устойчивых словосочетаниях:

E.g. be in bed,

to go by bus,

at home,

by mistake,

at breakfast, etc

Exercises

Exercise 144. What are these thing? Try and find out if you don't know.

Example: an ant? It’s an insect. ants? bees? They are insects.

A. 1. a cauliflower? 2. a pigeon? 3. a dandelion? 4. a skyscraper? 5. Earth? Mars? Venus? Jupiter? 6. the Rhine? the Nile? the Mississippi?

B. And who were these people?

7. Beethoven? 8. Beethoven? Bach? 9. Pele? 10. Kennedy? Johnson? Nixon? 11. Shakespeare? 12. Einstein? 13. Elvis Presley? John Lennon? 14. Marilyn Monroe?

C. Read about someone’s job and then tell what his / her job is.

Example: Ron flies airplanes. He is a pilot.

1. Vera types letters in an office. 2. Tim arranges people's holidays for them. 3. Stella looks after patients in hospital. 4. Mary teaches mathematics. 5. Martha directs films. 6. John translates what people are saying from one language into another so that they can understand each other.

Exercise 145. Choose the correct articles to complete this paragraph.

Exercise 146. Read these conversations. Circle the letter of the statement that best describes each conversation.

  1. Cora: I’m bored. Let’s rent a video game.

Fred: OK.

a. Fred knows which game Cora is going to rent.

b. Fred and Cora aren’t talking about a particular game.

2. Cora: Mom, where’s the new video game?

Mom: Sorry, I haven’t seen it.

a. Mom knows that Cora rented a new game.

b. Mom doesn’t know that Cora rented a new game.

3. Fred: I’ll bet it’s in the hall. You always drop your things there.

Cora: I’ll go look.

a. There are several halls in Fred and Cora’s house.

b. There is only one hall in Fred and Cora’s house.

4. Fred: Was I right?

Cora: You weren’t even close. It was on a chair in the kitchen.

a. There is only one chair in the kitchen.

b. There are several chairs in the kitchen.

5. Fred: Wow! Look at that! The graphics are awesome.

Cora: So is the music.

a. All video games have good graphics and music.

b. The game Cora rented has good graphics and music.

6. Cora: This was fun. But why don’t we rent a sports game next time?

Fred: Good idea. I love sports games.

a. Fred is talking about sports games in general.

b. Fred is talking about a particular sports game.

Exercise 147. Fill in the blanks with articles. Translate the sentences into Russian / Ukrainian.

1. a) She had caught _____robber in the house. b) _____ robber she caught was a man her husband had once known.

2. a) Think of _____ lesson I have taught you. b) I want to teach you _____ lesson so that you may never tell lies again.

3. a) She opened _____ door of the dining-room and en­tered. b) In the dark passage she pushed _____ door and found herself in a big hall.

4. a) He was telling the secret in _____ low voice as he didn't want anybody to hear it. b) He spoke in _____ low voice that all the radio listeners knew so well.

5. a) Father has promised to give me _____ watch for my birthday. b) Look at _____ watch, what's the time?

6. a) He says he has got some tickets for _____ concert or some play but I'm not sure. b) We enjoyed every minute of _____ concert.

7. a) Show me _____ way out, please. b) I believe there must be _____ way of this situation.

Exercise 148. Fill in the blanks with articles.

1. Andorra is ____ country. It's ____ small country. ____ country is situated between France and Spain. 2. − Is there ____ theatre in your town? − Yes, we have one. ____ theatre is in the town's central square. 3. There is ____ mistake in this sentence. ____ mistake is bad. It's ____ grammar, not ____ spelling mistake. 4. This is ____ difficult sentence. ____ sentence has a new construction in it. It's ____ sentence with a passive construction. 5. "Roman Holidays" is ____ nice movie. It's ____ movie with Audrey Herburn. Go and see ___ movie. 6. Ours is ____ noisy street. It's ____ street with heavy traffic. ____ street is in the centre of the city.

Exercise 149. Say what article you will use with the un­derlined words. Translate the sentences.

1. Это не жилой дом, а учреждение. 2. Это дом, в ко­тором у моих знакомых квартира. 3. Это темная комната. 4. Комната светлая. 5. На той стороне реки находится кафе. 6. Кафе на другой стороне реки. 7. У него есть кни­га по этому вопросу. 8. Книга по интересующему вас вопросу − на полке. 9. У меня есть учебник. 10. Учебник.не у меня, а у него. 11. Она − инженер. 12. Он тот самый врач, который меня оперировал. 13. Это известная карти­на. 14. Это та знаменитая картина, о которой так много говорят. 15. У тебя та единственная копия картины, о которой они говорили. 16. У меня в комнате большое окно. 17. Закрой окно, холодно.

Exercise 150. Read this conversation about an amusement park. Complete the sentences with the where necessary. Use if you don’t need an article.

A: I’m going to Blare Gardens next weekend. You work there. What’s it like?

B: That depends. Do you like scary rides? If you do, then you’re going to love rides at Blare Gardens.

A: What’s _____ most exciting ride there?

B: The Python. I’ve seen people actually shaking with fear before they got on it.

A: Sounds like _____ fun. By the way, how’s _____ food there? I hate _____ hot dogs.

B: Then you might have a little problem. They sell _____ hot dogs and pizza, and that’s about it. But do you like ____ music?

A: I love it. I listen to country music all the time. Why?

B: ____ music at Blare Gardens is great. They have ____ best country music groups in _____ entire state.

A: What exactly do you do there? Maybe we’ll see you.

B: I dress like a cartoon character and guide people around park.

Exercise 151. Put in a/an or the.

A. Example: There was a man and a woman in the room. The man was English but the woman looked foreign. She was wearing a fur coat.

1. This morning I bought _____ newspaper and _____ magazine. _____ newspaper is in my bag but I don't know where _____ magazine is.

2. My parents have _____ cat and _____ dog. _____ dog never bites _____cat but _____ cat often scratches _____ dog.

3. I saw _____ accident this morning. _____ car crashed into _____ wall. _____ driver of _____ car was not hurt but _____ car was quite badly damaged.

4. When you turn into Lipson Road, you will see three houses: _____ red one, _____

blue one and _____ white one. I live in _____ white one.

5. We live in _____ old house in _____ middle of the village. There is _____ beautiful garden behind _____ house. _____ roof of _____ house is in very bad condition.

B. Examples: I'm looking for a job. Did Ann get the job she applied for?

1. Would you like _____ apple? 2. Could you close _____ door, please? 3. We live in _____ small flat near _____ centre of the city. 4. Have you finished with _____ book I lent you last week? 5. We went out for _____ meal last night. _____ restaurant we went to was excellent. 6. Did _____ police find _____ person who stole your bicycle? 7. This is a nice house. Has it got _____ garden? 8. It was warm and sunny, so we decided to sit in _____ garden. 9. This morning I had _____ boiled egg and toast for breakfast. 10. _____President of the United States is elected every four years. 11. As I was walking along the street, I saw _____ £10 note on _____ pavement. 12. I went into the shop and asked to speak to _____ manager. 13. − Have you got _____ car? − No, I've never had _____ car in my life. 14. There's no need to buy any milk. _____milkman brings it every morning.

Exercise 152. Put in a/an or some or leave a space (without a word).

Examples: I've seen some good films recently.

Have you got a headache?

1. Are most of your friends _____ students? 2. Have you got _____ camera? 3. You need _____ visa to visit _____ foreign countries, but not all of them. 4. Would you like to be _____ actor? 5. Bill's got _____ big feet. 6. I'm going shopping. I'm going to get _____ new clothes. 7. Do you collect _____ stamps? 8. Tom always gives Ann _____ flowers on her birthday. 9. Jane is _____ teacher. Her parents were _____ teachers too. 10. Those are _____ really nice trousers. Where did you get them? 11. When we reached the city centre, _____ shops were still open but most of them were already closed. 12. What _____ beautiful garden! 13. What _____ lovely children! 14. Do you enjoy going to _____ concerts? 15. _____ birds, for example the penguin, cannot fly. 16. When I was _____ child, I used to be very shy. 17. Jack has got _____very long legs, so he's _____ fast runner.

Exercise 153. Complete these sentences using the + noun.

Example: It was getting dark in the room, so I turned on the light.

1. There were no chairs so we all had to sit on _____. 2. As soon as I saw the fire, I called _____. 3. We didn't have any stamps, so we had to go to _____. 4. I had a toothache, so I made an appointment with _____. 5. Ann had to catch a train, so I took her to _____. 6. When we found that someone had broken into our house, we called _____. 7. Bill wasn't feeling well, so he went to _____. 8. We didn't have any money, so we had to go to _____. 9. The plane was delayed, so we had to wait at _____ for three hours.

Exercise 154. Answer these questions in the way shown.

Example: Was it a good film? Yes, it was the best film I've ever seen.

1. 'Is it a big hotel?' 'Yes, it is _____ in the city.'

2 .'Is he a rich man?' 'Yes, he is _____ I've ever met.'

3 .'Was it a bad accident?' 'Yes, it was _____ I've ever seen.'

4 .'Is it a cheap restaurant?' 'Well, it is _____ you will find.'

5 .'It's hot today, isn't it?' 'Yes, it is _____ day of the year.'

6. 'Was he happy that day?' 'Yes, he was _____ in the world.'

Exercise 155. Choose the correct words to complete this magazine article.Exercise 156 Explain the use of articles in the following sentences.

a) 1. It's time for dinner. 2. Supper will be ready in a minute. 3. He reads his morning paper at breakfast. 4. We usually have a very light supper. 5. I met him at a dinner at Smith's house. 6. The dinner will be on July 2 at the "Grand Hotel" after the festival is over.

b) 1. This country exports coffee. 2. The coffee is cold, I don't want it. 3. Of all the teas I like the green tea most; it's a nice drink on a hot day. 4. Look, the snow is quite black near the factory. 5. This flower likes a lot of sand in the ground and needs very little water. 6. "Essentuky" is a mineral water.

Exercise 157. Use articles where necessary:

A. 1. ___ room 25 is on ___ 3d floor. 2. ___ lecture begins at ___ 9 o'clock in ___ morning. 3. ___ 5 o'clock tea is ___ tradition in England. 4. Open ___ textbook on ___ page 20 and look at ___ picture at ___ top of ___ page. 5. ___ February is ___ shortest month of ___ year. 6. He read ___ story from ___ beginning to ___ end. 7. ___ New Year begins on ___ 1st of ___ January. 8. She is in ___ 10th year at ___ school and her brother is ___ 3d year student at ___ university. 9. ___ number 10, Downing Street is ___ residence of ___ British Prime Minister.

B. 1. ___ fish is more useful than ___ meat. 2. Don't drink ___ milk, it is very cold. 3. ___water in ___ river is quite warm this summer. 4. Can you bake ___ bread? 5. ___ bread isn't enough for ___ three of us. 6. I take ___ coffee with ___sugar. 7. ___ English like to drink ___tea with ___ milk. 8. ___ man can't live without ___ air. 9. There was ___smell of ___ spring in ___air. 10. You married her not for ___ love but for ___ money.

Exercise 158. Read this postcard from Blare Gardens. Find and correct eight mistakes in the use of the and (no article). The first mistake is already corrected.

Exercise 159 Use articles where necessary:

1. ___ London is ___ capital of ___ Great Britain, ___ full name of which is ___ United Kingdom of ___ Great Britain and ___ Northern Ireland. 2. ___ Volga is ___ fabulous river. 3. They used to spend their summer holidays on ___ Black Sea coast in ___ Crimea. 4. Many European adventurers crossed ___ Atlantic Ocean in ___ search of ___ riches on ___ American continent prior to ___Columbus. 5. ___ Gorki Street was renamed into ___Tverskaya Street. 6. ___ Red Square and ___ Kremlin are ___ heart of ___ capital. 7. ___ London was founded in ___ 1st century BC by ___ Julius Caesar. 8. ___ St. Petersburg was founded on ___ banks of ___ Neva by Peter ___ Great. 9. ___ Johnsons are our next-door neighbours. 10. ___ Canada is situated in ___ northern part of ___ North America. 11. Beyond lay ___ Smoky Mountains. 12. We left for ___ East on the following morning. 13. We came to ___ Ohio River after that. 14. They passed many coal mines on ___ way. 15. We crossed ___ historic Delaware River at ___ Trenton. 16. He arrived in ___ New York on ___ very rainy day. 17. The Mannings went through ___ Blue Ridge Mountains on their trip. 18. She spent several hours at ___ Bronx Zoo on ___ Monday. 19. They took ___ wonderful boat ride around ___ Manhattan on ___ last day of their visit. 20. ___ Dr. Rebecca Richards is our dentist. 21. ___ Lions donated ___ money for ___ new park. 22. You could buy ___ Picasso for £300 in those days. 23. I'm reading ___ Agatha Christie at ___ moment. 24. ___ Lady Diana's wedding dress was very beautiful. 25. ___ Sir Michael has made it very clear. 26. ___ Ryan gave ___ Sunday Tribune to his father.

Exercise 160. Use articles where necessary:

A. 1. ___primitive man was ___ slave to ___ nature. 2. I want you to tell ___ truth. 3. Can I see ___ picture, ___ one he gave you ___ minute ago. 4. It cost her ___ hundred and ___ fifty pounds. 5. ___ lecture lasts ___ hour and ___ half. 6. We called them once, then ___ second and ___ third time and thought we had dialed ___ wrong number. 7. There are ___ few points I'd like to clear up. 8. ___ number of ___ 1st year students has significantly increased this year. 9. He decided to spend ___ few pounds he had on ___ books. 10. There's ___ little juice in the bottle, you can drink it. 11. "Well, is ___ wrong side ___ left side or is ___ wrong side ___ right side? Because I got out on ___ right side, so how can it be wrong?" asked Michael. 12. ___hour passed, ___ second hour passed. 13. Mr. Kelada was chatty. He discussed ___ plays, ___ pictures, ___ politics.

B. 1. What ___ fine day! 2. What is ___ date today? 3. What ___ day is it today? 4. What ___ beautiful weather we are having today! 5. What ___ warm welcome they showed. 6. Look, what ___ lovely present I've received. 7. What's ___ news?

Exercise 161. Use articles where necessary:

1. ___ article is at ___ bottom of ___ front page. 2. There must be ___ way out of ___ difficulty. 3. ___ mother didn't expect her daughter to leave ___ country. 4. ___ party was ___ great success. There were quite ___ few celebrities who made ___ hit with ___ guests. 5. ___ few were ___ days on which he did not go out in ___search of ___ adventure. 6. ___ car started with ___ jerk and disappeared around ___ corner before we managed to see ___ number. 7. ___ parents worked from ___ morning till ___ night, but ___ family could hardly make both ___ ends meet. 8. ___ flight was delayed because ___ number of passengers had not come on ___ board when ___ boarding was announced. 9. Has ___ number of ___ telephone changed? I can't put ___ call through. 10. ___ water in ___ Baltic Sea is cold most of ___ time. 11. There is ___ tourist camp on ___ other bank of ___ river. 12. She learned to play ___ piano at ___ age of four. 13. ___ longer they argued ___ less chance there was to come to ___ agreement. 14. It was ___ most pleasant and peaceful scene.

Exercise 162. Use articles where necessary:

___ room was on ___ 4th floor. It was ___ room 405. ___ porter gave Sue ___ key and said ___ lift didn't work because it was after ___ midnight. ___ heavy suitcase was killing her when she was climbing ___ last flight of stairs. Sue stepped into ___ dark corridor, ___ room was at ___ end of ___ corridor and when she opened ___ door and found herself in ___ small hall she felt ___ happiest woman in ___ world. She put on ___ light. It was ___ very small room with ___ tiny table by ___ window, ___ chair, ___ mirror on ___ wall. There was ___ bed against ___ wall and ___ picture over it. Sue sat on ___ bed and started thinking about ___ plans for ___ next day. Suddenly she heard ___ knock at ___ door.

Exercise 163. Use articles where necessary.

Do you know that:

1. ___ London stands on ___ Thames;

2. ___ population of ___ Britain is ___ 57 million;

3. ___ Romans came to ___ Britain in ___ first century BC;

4. ___ Labour Party is in ___ power in ___ UK now;

5. ___ Queen Elizabeth ___ Second became ___ British monarch on ___ 6 February, 1952;

6. ___ Queen Mother is one of ___ most popular members of ___ Royal family;

7. ___ English is not ___ only language spoken in ___ Great Britain;

8. ___ national flag of ___ UK is ___ Union Jack;

9. ___ Caledonia, ___ Cambria and ___ Hibemia were ___ Roman names for ___ Scotland, Wales and Ireland respectively;

10. ___ English eat ___ dinner at ___ 6 or 7 o'clock in ___ evening.

Exercise 164. Put in a/an or the. Sometimes you don't need either word − leave it blank.

Examples: We went to the most expensive restaurant in town.

Do you want to watch _____ television this evening?

Last night we went out for a meal in a restaurant.

1. I wrote my name at _____ top of the page. 2. _____ moon goes round _____ earth every 27 days. 3. The Soviet Union was _____ first country to send a man into _____ space. 4. Did you see the film on _____ television or at _____cinema? 5. After _____ lunch, we went for a walk by _____ sea. 6. I'm not very hungry. I had _____ big breakfast. 7. John was _____ only person I talked to at the party. 8. Tim lives in _____ small village in _____ country. 9. Peru is _____ country in South America. _____ capital is Lima. 10. I never listen to _____ radio. In fact I haven't got _____ radio. 11. It was _____ beautiful day. _____ sun shone brightly in _____ sky. 12. I've invited Tom to _____ dinner next Wednesday. 13. What is _____ highest mountain in _____ world? 14. We don't go to_____ theatre very much these days. In fact, in _____ town where we live there isn't _____ theatre. 15. It was a long voyage. We were at _____ sea for four weeks. 16. I prefer swimming in _____ sea to swimming in pools. 17. Can you turn _____ television down, please? It's a bit loud.

Exercise 165. Translate into English.

а) 1. Погода часто меняется в апреле. 2. Мы поедем за город в хорошую погоду, а сегодня останемся дома. 3. Ка­кая ужасная погода! Весь день идет дождь. 4. У нас обычно хорошая погода в это время.

б) 1. Осень − лучшее время для фруктов. 2. Я люблю зиму, нашу зиму со снегом и ясными морозными днями. 3. Весна запаздывает в этом году. 4. Большинство людей отдыхают летом. 5. В этом году ожидают сырую и холод­ную осень. 6. Мы переехали в Москву зимой 1991 года. 7. Лето было хорошим в этом году.

в) 1. Давай подождем, дождь скоро прекратится. 2. Вклю­чите желтые фары − туман. 3. Ветер с запада обычно приносит дождь. 4. Снег в городе никогда не бывает таким белым, как за городом. 5. Когда он проснулся и выглянул в окно, то увидел, что весь сад покрыт (под) снегом.

Exercise 166. Use articles where necessary: