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13. The Chоrnobyl accident as world’s major environmental problem.

Chernobyl is a city in Ukraine near the border with Belarus. Not far from the city, approximately in 18 kilometers northwest from it there is another small Ukrainian town, called Pripyat. The main electric power and nuclear Chernobyl stations were once situated there, before the huge disaster. At night of April 26 in 1986 one of the reactors of the power plant suffered a catastrophic steam explosion that caused not only fire, but a series of additional explosions, followed nuclear meltdown. This explosion is considered to be the worst nuclear accident in the whole history of nuclear power. It immediately attracted the world media attention and affected people’s consciousness in all parts of our planet. The Chernobyl disaster took away lives of thousands of people who have lived and worked there. This explosion produced a plume of radioactive debris that affected different parts of the world, including Soviet Union, some parts of Europe, and even eastern USA. The largest areas of contamination were in Ukraine, Belarus and western Russia, and more than 300,000 people had to be evacuated and resettled. This catastrophe forced people to think over nuclear problems and possible consequences. Public awareness of these risks increased significantly. Even now it’s difficult to count the deaths caused by the Chernobyl disaster, as most of the deaths were the result of cancer, which people suffered much later after the radioactive explosion. The Chernobyl disaster is not the only result of human anti-natural activity but certainly one of the worst catastrophes in the world. Environmental damage was widespread immediately following the accident, stretching from fauna and vegetation to rivers and lakes and all the way down to the groundwater. The second major plume of {C}radiation released by the Chernobyl nuclear accident was carried directly over what is now called the Red Forest. Radioactive particles settled on trees, killing approximately 400 hectares of pine forest. The Red Forest is now one of the most contaminated terrestrial habitats on earth.

15. The constitution of Ukraine and the Universal Declaration of Human rights

Constitution of Ukraine.

The Constitution is the main law of each state. Each state enters into the Constitution the principles, according to which it lives. That’s why the Constitution is an integral part of the life of each state.

The Constitution of Ukraine was adopted on the 28th of June, 1996. It confirmed the main principles of our state, the rights, freedoms and duties of every citizen. It determines the order of the President elections, elections into the Verkhovna Rada, state symbols, independence and sovereignty of Ukraine.

The Constitution proclaims the freedom of speech, outlook and religion. The church and different religious organizations are separated from the state, and from the school. That’s why it is impossible to make any religion compulsory or state. But the church and religion are not isolated from the society.

The Constitution also proclaims the right for political unions, meetings and demonstrations and participation in governing the state. The duties of the citizens are also included into the Constitution. The family, childhood, maternity and paternity are guarded by the state. The military service and tax payment are also the duties of the citizens. Each citizen must observe the Constitution, preserve the freedoms and rights of other people and carry out his own duties.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a statement affirming the dignity and rights of all human beings, adopted by the United Nations (UN) in 1948. It is based on principles expressed in the UN Charter. The declaration is the first section of a proposed three-part international covenant, or agreement, on human rights. When adopted, the covenant will bind the participating nations in the same way as any international treaty. The two remaining sections of the covenant amplify the initial declaration in specific and enforceable terms. One is concerned with civil and political rights, and the other with economic, social, and cultural rights.

The rights described in the 30 articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights include the right to life, liberty, and security of person; to freedom of conscience, religion, opinion, expression, association, and assembly; to freedom from arbitrary arrest; to a fair and impartial trial; to freedom from interference in privacy, home, or correspondence; to a nationality; to a secure society and an adequate standard of living; to education; and to rest and leisure. The declaration also affirms the rights of every person to own property; to be presumed innocent until proven guilty; to travel from a home country at will and return at will; to work under favorable conditions, receive equal pay for equal work, and join labor unions at will; to marry and raise a family; and to participate in government and in the social life of the community.

The declaration affected the terms of several national constitutions that were written after World War II (1939-1945). In 1956 the UN requested progress reports on human rights every three years from member nations.

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