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Trustees of Princeton University

Political Development and Political Decay

Author(s): Samuel P. Huntington

Source: World Politics, Vol. 17, No. 3 (Apr., 1965), pp. 386-430

Published by: Cambridge University Press

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2009286

Accessed: 20/02/2014 07:04

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POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT

AND POLITICAL DECAY

By SAMUEL P. HUNTINGTON*

AMONG the laws thatrulehumansocieties,"de Tocqueville said,"thereis one whichseemstobe morepreciseand clearthan

all others.If menare to remaincivilizedor to becomeso,theartof associatingtogethermustgrow and improvein the same ratio in whichtheequalityofconditionsis increased."'In muchoftheworld today,equalityofpoliticalparticipationis growingmuchmorerapidly than is the "art of associatingtogether."The ratesof mobilization and participationare high; theratesof organizationand institutionalizationarelow.De Tocqueville'spreconditionforcivilizedsocietyis in danger,ifit is notalreadyunderminedIn. thesesocieties,theconflictbetweenmobilizationand institutionalizationisthecruxof politics.Yetin thefast-growingliteratureon thepoliticsofthedeveloping areas, politicalinstitutionalizationusuallyreceivesscant treatment. Writerson politicaldevelopmentemphasizetheprocessesofmodernizationand thecloselyrelatedphenomenaof socialmobilizationand increasingpoliticalparticipationA. balancedview of the politicsof contemporaryAsia, Africa,and Latin Americarequiresmoreattentionto the"artof associatingtogether"and the growthof political institutionsFor. thispurpose,itis usefulto distinguishpoliticaldevelopmentfrommodernizationand to identifypoliticaldevelopment withtheinstitutionalizationofpoliticalorganizationsand procedures. Rapidincreasesin mobilizationandparticipation,theprincipalpolitical aspectsof modernization,underminepolitical institutionsRapid. modernization,in brief,producesnot politicaldevelopment,but politicaldecay.

I. POLITICALDEVELOPMENTAS MODERNIZATION

Definitionsof politicaldevelopmentare legion. Most, however, sharetwo closelyrelatedcharacteristicsFirst,.politicaldevelopment is identifiedas one aspectof, or as intimatelyconnectedwith,the broaderprocessesofmodernizationin societyas a whole.Moderniza-

*I am gratefulto the Centerfor InternationalAffairs,HarvardUniversity,for thesupportwhichmadethisarticlepossibleand to EdwardC. Banfield,MatherEliot, MiltonJ.Esman,H. Field Haviland,Jr.,and JohnD. Montgomery,fortheirhelpful writtencommentson an earlierdraft.

'Democracy in America(PhillipsBradleyedn.,New York I955), II, II8.

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POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND DECAY

387

tionaffectsall segmentsof society;itspoliticalaspectsconstitutepoliticaldevelopmentIndeed,.manyauthorsseemto preferthephrase "politicalmodernization"as moredescriptiveof theirprimaryconcern.Second,if politicaldevelopmentis linkedwithmodernization, it is necessarily broad and complexprocess.Hence mostauthors arguethatpoliticaldevelopmentmustbe measuredby manycriteria. The "multi-functioncharacterof politics,"Lucian Pye has said, ". . . meansthatno singlescalecan be usedformeasuringthedegree ofpoliticaldevelopment."'It thusdiffersfromeconomicdevelopment, on thecharacterofwhichthereseemsto be moregeneralagreement and whichis measurablethroughfairlypreciseindicessuch as per capita nationalincome.Definitionsof politicaldevelopmenthence tend to itemizea numberof criteriaWard. and Rustowlist eight characteristicsof themodernpolity;Emersonhas five.Pye identifies fourmajoraspectsof politicaldevelopmentplus half a dozen additional"factors."Eisenstadtfindsfourcharacteristicsof politicalmod-

ernization.'

The definitionsaremanyand multiple;but,witha fewexceptions, thecharacteristicswhichtheyidentifywithpoliticaldevelopmentare all aspectsof theprocessesof modernizationFour. setsof categories recurcontinuouslyin the definitionsOne. set,focusingon the Parsonianpatternvariables,canperhapsbestbe summedup as rationalizae tion. This involvesmovementfromparticularismto universalism, fromdiffusenessto specificity,fromascriptionto achievement,and fromaffectivityto affectiveneutralityIn. termsof politicaldevelop, ment,functionaldifferentiationand achievementcriteriaare particularlyemphasized.4A secondsetof characteristicsidentifiedwithdevelopmentinvolvesnationalismand nationalintegrationAlmost.all writersrecognizetheproblemof the"crisisof nationalidentity"and the necessityof establishing firmlydelimitedethnicbasisforthe politicalcommunityA.5 developedpolity,it is usuallyassumed,must,

2LucianW. Pye,ed.,Communicationsand PoliticalDevelopment(PrincetonI963),

i6.

3 RobertE. Ward and DankwartA. Rustow,eds.,PoliticalModernizationin Japan and Turkey(Princetoni964), 6-7; RupertEmerson,PoliticalModernization:The Single-PartySystem(Denver I963), 7-8; Pye,ed., Communicationsand PoliticalDe- velopment,17-i8; S. N. Eisenstadt,"Bureaucracyand PoliticalDevelopment,"in Joseph

LaPalombara,ed.,Bureaucracyand PoliticalDevelopment(PrincetonI963), 99.

4James S. Coleman,in GabrielA. Almondand Coleman,eds.,The Politicsof the

DevelopingAreas (Princetoni960), 532; Fred W. Riggs,"Bureaucracyand Political

Development:A

ParadoxicalView,"in LaPalombara,ed., Bureaucracyand Political

Development,122;

Eisenstadt,in ibid.,99; Wardand Rustow,eds.,PoliticalModerniza.

tiOn,7.

5 See, e.g.,GabrielA. Almond,"PoliticalSystemsand PoliticalChange,"American

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WORLD POLITICS

withrareexception,bea nation-state"Nation.-building"isa keyaspect ofpoliticaldevelopmentA.thirdapproachfocusesondemocratization:

pluralism,competitiveness,equalizationofpower,andsimilarqualities. "Competitiveness,"saysColeman,"is an essentialaspectof political modernity. . ." Hence,"theAnglo-Americanpolitiesmostclosely approximatethemodelofa modernpoliticalsystem. Freyargues that"themostcommonnotionofpoliticaldevelopmentinintellectual Americancirclesis thatofmovementtowardsdemocracyHe." finds thisa congenialnotionandoffershisowndefinitionofpoliticaldevelopmentas "changesin thedirectionof greaterdistributionand

reciprocityofpower.

Rationalization,integration,and democratizationthuscommonly appearin definitionsofpoliticaldevelopmentThe. characteristicof politicaldevelopmentor politicalmodernizationwhichis mostfrequentlyemphasized,however,is mobilization,orparticipationMod. - ernization,KarlDeutschhasemphasized,involvessocialmobilization, and "thiscomplexofprocessesof socialchangeis significantlycorrelatedwithmajorchangesinpolitics.Increases"inliteracy,urbanization,exposuretomassmedia,industrialization,andpercapitaincome expand"thepoliticallyrelevantstrataof thepopulation,"multiply thedemandsforgovernmentservices,andthusstimulatean increase in governmentalcapabilities,broadeningoftheelite,increasedpoliticalparticipation,andshiftsinattentionfromthelocalleveltothe nationallevel.8Modernizationmeansmassmobilization;massmobilizationmeansincreasedpoliticalparticipation;andincreasedparticipationis thekeyelementofpoliticaldevelopmentParticipation.distinguishesmodernpoliticsfromtraditionalpolitics"Traditional.society," saysLerner,"is non-participant-deploysitpeopleby kinshipinto communitiesisolatedfromeachotherandfroma center... ." Modern society,incontrast,is"participantsociety."'The "newworldpolitical culture,"sayAlmondandVerba,"willbe a politicalcultureofparticipationIf. thereis a politicalrevolutiongoingon throughoutthe world,itis whatmightbe calledtheparticipationexplosionIn. all thenewnationsoftheworldthebeliefthattheordinarymanispolit-

BehavioralScientist,vi (JuneI963), 3-I0; Wardand Rustow,eds.,PoliticalModernization,7.

6 Coleman,in Almondand Coleman,eds.,PoliticsofDevelopingAreas,533. 7FrederickW. Frey, "PoliticalDevelopment,Power, and Communicationsin

Turkey,"in Pye,ed.,Communicationsand PoliticalDevelopment,30L.

8Karl W. Deutsch,"SocialMobilizationand PoliticalDevelopment,"AmericanPo-

liticalScienceReview,LV (Septemberi96i), 493ff.

9Daniel Lerner,The Passingof TraditionalSociety(GlencoeI958), 48-50.

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POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND DECAY

389

icallyrelevant-thatheoughttobean involvedparticipantinthepo-

liticalsystem-iswidespreadLarge.groupsofpeoplewhohavebeen outsidepoliticsaredemandingentranceintothepoliticalsystem."10 Politicaldevelopment,Rustowargues,maybe definedas "(I) an increasingnationalpoliticalunityplus(2) a broadeningbaseofpolitical participation....Similarly,"Riggsdeclaresthatpoliticaldevelopment "referstotheprocessofpoliticization:increasingparticipationorinvolvementofthecitizeninstateactivities,inpowercalculations,and

consequences.""

All definitionsarearbitraryThese.definitionsofpoliticaldevelop-

mentassomecombinationorpermutationofparticipation,rationalization,democratization,and nation-buildingare justas legitimateas

anyotherdefinitionWhile.all definitionsmaybe equallyarbitrary andequallylegitimate,theydovarygreatly,however,intheirrelevance to particularproblemsand theirusefulnessforparticularends.Presumablyonemajorpurposeofconceptsofpoliticaldevelopmentisto facilitateunderstandingof thepoliticalprocessesin contemporary Asian,African,andLatinAmericansocietiesTo. be analyticallyuseful,a conceptmustbepreciseandrelevantItmust.alsohavesufficient generalityofapplicationto permitcomparativeanalysisof differing situationsMany.approachestopoliticaldevelopmentsufferfromone ormoreofthefollowingdifficulties.

First,theidentificationofpoliticaldevelopmentwithmodernizationorwithfactorsusuallyassociatedwithmodernizationdrastically limitstheapplicabilityoftheconceptin bothtimeand space.It is definedin parochialand immediateterms,itsrelevancelimitedto modernnation-statesor theemergenceof modernnation-statesIt.

becomesimpossibletospeakofa politicallydevelopedtribalauthority, city-state,feudalmonarchy,or bureaucraticempireDevelopment.is identifiedwithonetypeofpoliticalsystem,ratherthanas a quality whichmightcharacterizeanytypeof politicalsystemAll. systems whicharenotmodernareunderdeveloped,includingpresumablyfifth- centuryAthens,thethird-centuryB.C. Romanrepublic,thesecondcenturyA.D. Romanempire,theHan and T'ang empiresin China, or eveneighteenth-centuryAmericaNone.ofthesepoliticalsystems wasmodernIs.italsousefultoconsiderthemunderdeveloped?Would itnotbemoreappropriatetoconsiderdevelopmentorunderdevelopmentasa characteristicwhichmightbefoundinanytypeofpolitical

10 GabrielA. Almondand SidneyVerba,The CivicCulture(Princetoni963), 4. 11DankwartA. Rustow,"The VanishingDreamof Stability,"AID Digest (August

I962), I3; Riggs,in LaPalombara,ed.,Bureaucracyand PoliticalDevelopment,I39.

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WORLD POLITICS

system?City-statescouldbe developedor underdeveloped;so also couldbebureaucraticempiresormodernnation-statesThis.approach wouldcastadditionallighton contemporarymodernizingsocieties byfurnishingasecondsetofcategories(in additiontothetraditionalmodernset)forcomparingtheprocessesofchangein thosesocieties withtheprocessesofchangein othertypesofsocietiesSuch.an approach,of course,wouldalso liberatetheconceptof development fromtheevenmorelimitedidentificationofit withtheWestern,

constitutional,democraticnation-state.

The secondproblemwithmanydefinitionsof politicaldevelopmentis theobversebutalsothecorollaryof thefirstOn. theone hand,developmentis limitedto thecharacteristicsofthemodern nation-stateOn. theother,it is alsobroadenedtoincludealmostall politicallyrelevantaspectsof themodernizationprocessIt. acquires comprehensivenessatthecostofprecisionThere.isa naturaltendency toassumethatpoliticaldevelopmentisall ofa piece,thatone"good thing"is compatiblewithanotherIn. addition,studiesofmodernizationhaveshowna veryhighdegreeofcorrelationamongsuchindices as literacy,urbanization,mediaparticipation,andpoliticalparticipation."2Hence,it is easyto assumethata similarcorrelationexists amongthevariouselementsidentifiedas contributingtopoliticaldevelopmentIn. fact,however,thefour,eight,ortwelvecriteriaofdevelopmentmayor maynot have anysystematicrelationto each otherThey.mayindeedbenegativelycorrelatedThere.isnoparticular reason,forinstance,whymoreparticipationandmorestructuraldifferentiationshouldgotogether;infact,thereissomea priorireasonto assumethatmoreofonemightmeanlessoftheotherIf.thisbe the case,twocontradictorytendencies(A, -B; -A, B) couldbothbe labeled"politicaldevelopmentThe."broaderthedefinitionofdevelopment,moreover,themoreinevitabledevelopmentbecomesThe. allencompassingdefinitionsmakedevelopmentseemeasybymakingit seeminescapableDevelopment.becomesan omnipresentfirstcause, whichexplainseverythingbut distinguishesnothingAlmost.anythingthathappensin the "developing"countries-coups,ethnic struggles,revolutionarywars-becomespartoftheprocessofdevelop-

ment,howevercontradictoryretrogressivethismayappearon the

surfacePolitical.developmentthuslosesitsanalyticalcontentand acquiressimplya geographicone.Attheextreme,itbecomessynonymouswiththepoliticalhistoryofAsia,Africa,andLatinAmerica.13

12Lerner,Passingof TraditionalSociety,chap.2.

13For thereductioad absurdum,see Majid Khadduri,ModernLibya: A Studyin

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POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND DECAY

391

Thirdly,manydefinitionsofpoliticaldevelopmentfailtodistinguish clearlytheempiricalrelevanceofthecomponentsgoingintothedefinitionConcepts.of "developed"and "undeveloped"as idealtypes orstatesofbeingareconfusedwithconceptsof"development"as a processwhichare,in turn,identifiedwiththepoliticsof theareas commonlycalled"developingThe."linebetweenactualityandaspirationis foggedThings.whicharein factoccurring the"developing"areasbecomehopelesslyintertwinedwiththingswhichthetheorist thinksshouldoccurthereHere.againthetendencyhasbeentoassume thatwhatis trueforthebroaderprocessesofsocialmodernizationis also trueforpoliticalchangesModernization,.in somedegree,is a factinAsia,Africa,LatinAmerica:urbanizationisrapid;literacyis

slowlyincreasing;industrializationisbeingpushed;percapitagross nationalproductis inchingupward;massmediacirculationis ex-

panding;politicalparticipationis broadeningAll. theseare facts. In contrast,progresstowardmanyoftheothergoalsidentifiedwith politicaldevelopment-democracy,stability,structuraldifferentiation,

achievementpatterns,nationalintegration-oftenisdubiousat best. Yet thetendencyis to thinkthatbecausemodernizationistaking place,politicaldevelopmentalsomustbe takingplace.As a result,

manyofthesympatheticWesternwritingsabouttheunderdeveloped

areastodayhavethesameairofhopefulunrealitywhichcharacterized muchofthesympatheticWesternwritingabouttheSovietUnionin

the I920's and i930's. Theyare suffusedwithwhatcan onlybe

describedas "Webbism":thatis,thetendencytoascribetoa political systemqualitieswhichare assumedto be itsultimategoalsrather thanqualitieswhichactuallycharacterizeits processesand func-

tions."4

In actuality,onlysomeofthetendenciesfrequentlyencompassed in theconcept"politicaldevelopment"appearto be characteristicof the"developing"areas.Insteadofa trendtowardcompetitivenessand

PoliticalDevelopment(Baltimorei963), and J.ClagettTaylor,The PoliticalDevelopmentof Tanganyika(Stanfordi963). In thetitlesand contentofboth,"politicaldevelopment"has no analyticalmeaning.It is simplya synonym(euphemism?)for

"politicalhistory.Both"booksare good history,but theyare not socialscience. 14 See,e.g.,MiltonJ.Esman,"The Politicsof DevelopmentAdministration,"to be

publishedin JohnD. Montgomeryand WilliamSiffin,eds.,Politics,Administration and Change:Approachesto Development(New York i965). Esmanbaseshis analysis

on the assumptionthatthe politicalleadersof modernizingsocietiesare motivated by thegoals of nation-buildingand social-economicprogressand not by desirefor personalpower,wealth,status,or the territorialexpansionof theircountriesThis. assumptionhas aboutthesamedegreeof truthand usefulnessin explainingpolitics in thecontemporary"developing"areasas theassumptionthatStalin'spolicieswere devotedtobuildingcommunismhas to theexplanationofSovietpoliticsin the I930'S.

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democracy,therehasbeenan "erosionofdemocracy"anda tendency to autocraticmilitaryregimesand one-partyregimesInstead.of stability,therehavebeenrepeatedcoupsand revoltsInstead.of a unifyingnationalismand nation-building,therehavebeenrepeated ethnicconflictsandcivilwars.Insteadofinstitutionalrationalization anddifferentiation,therehasfrequentlybeena decayoftheadministrativeorganizationsinheritedfromthecolonialeraanda weakening and disruptionof thepoliticalorganizationsdevelopedduringthe

struggleforindependenceOnly.15theconceptof politicaldevelopmentas mobilizationand participationappearsto be generallyapplicableto the"developing"world.Rationalization,competitiveness, andnation-building,contrast,seemtohaveonlya dimrelationto reality.

Thisgapbetweentheoryandrealitysuggestsa fourthdifficultyin manyconceptsof politicaldevelopmentThey.areusuallyone-way

.conceptsLittle.or no provisionis madefortheirreversibilityIf. politicaldevelopmentisthoughttoinvolvethemobilizationofpeople intopolitics,accountshouldalsobetakenofthepossibilitythatpolitical de-developmentcan takeplaceand peoplecan be demobilized outofpoliticsStructural.differentiationmayoccur,butso alsomayh structuralhomogenizationNational.disintegrationa phenomenon as muchas nationalintegrationA.conceptofpoliticaldevelopment shouldbe reversibleIt.shoulddefinebothpoliticaldevelopmentand thecircumstancesunderwhichpoliticaldecayisencouraged.

Thefailuretothinkofpoliticaldevelopmentasa reversibleprocess apparentlystemsfromtwosourcesInsofar.asdevelopmentisidentified withmodernization,manyaspectsofmodernizationdo appearto be practicallyirreversibleUrbanization.isnotlikelytogivewaytoruralizationIncreases.in literacyarenotnormallyfollowedbysharpdeclinesCapital.onceinvestedfactoriespowerplantsstaysinvested.

Evenincreasesin percapitagrossnationalproductare,moreoften thannot,permanent,exceptforminordipsordestructioncausedby warornaturalcatastropheWith.varyingslopes,withhesitancyinsome sectorsbutwithstrengthand steadyprogressin others,virtuallyall theindicesofmodernizationprogresssteadilyupwardon thecharts. Butpoliticalchangeshavenosuchirreversibility.

In otherinstances,onefeelsthatan underlyingcommitmenttothe theoryofprogressis sooverwhelmingastoexcludepoliticaldecayas

15 On the"erosionofdemocracy"andpoliticalinstability,seeRupertEmerson,From EmpiretoNation(Cambridge,Mass.,i960), chap.I5; and MichaelBrecher,The New StatesofAsia (London I963), chap.2.

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POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND DECAY

393

a possibleconcept.Politicaldecay,like thermonuclearwar, becomes unthinkableAlmond,.forinstance,measuresnotjustpoliticaldevelopmentbutpoliticalchangeby"theacquisitionbya politicalsystemof somenew capability."1The specificcapabilitieshe has in mindare thosefornationalintegration,internationalaccommodation,political participation,andwelfaredistributionBefore.theRenaissance,Almond argues,politicalsystems"acquiredand lostcapabilities... inanything but a unilinear,evolutionaryway." Modernization,however,reduces "the independenceof man's politicalexperiments.Change" is "far fromunilinear,"butit is toward"the emergenceof worldculture." Surely,however,modernand modernizingstatescan changeby losingcapabilitiesas wellas bygainingthem.In addition, gainin any one capabilityusuallyinvolvescostsin others.A theoryof political developmentneedsto be matedto a theoryofpoliticaldecay.Indeed, as was suggestedabove, theoriesof instability,corruption,authoritarianism,domesticviolence,institutionaldecline,and politicaldisintegrationmaytellus a lotmoreaboutthe"developing"areasthantheir morehopefullydefinedopposites.

II. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AS INSTITUTIONALIZATION

Thereis thusmuchto be gained (as well as somethingto be lost) by conceivingof politicaldevelopmentas a processindependentof, althoughobviouslyaffectedby,theprocessofmodernizationIn. view ofthecrucialimportanceoftherelationshipbetweenmobilizationand participation,on theone hand,and thegrowthof politicalorganizations,on theother,it is usefulformanypurposesto definepolitical developmentas theinstitutionalizationof politicalorganizationsand proceduresThis. conceptliberatesdevelopmentfrommodernization. It can be appliedto theanalysisof politicalsystemsof any sort,not justmodernones.It can be definedin reasonablyprecisewayswhich are at least theoreticallycapable of measurementAs. a concept,it doesnotsuggestthatmovementis likelyto be in onlyone direction: institutions,we know,decayand dissolveas wellas growand mature. Most significantly,it focusesattentionon the reciprocalinteraction betweenthe on-goingsocialprocessesof modernization,on theone hand,and the strength,stability,or weaknessof politicalstructures, traditional,transitional,or modern,on theother.17

16 Almond,American Behavioral Scientist,vi, 6.

17The conceptof institutionalizationhas, of course,been used by otherwriters concernedwithpoliticaldevelopment-mostnotably,S. N. EisenstadtHis. definition, however,differssignificantlyfrommy approachhere.See, in particular,his "Initial

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The strengthofpoliticalorganizationsandproceduresvarieswith

theirscopeofsupportand theirlevelofinstitutionalizationScope.re- ferssimplyto theextentto whichthepoliticalorganizationsand

proceduresencompassactivityinthesocietyIf.onlya smallupper-class groupbelongstopoliticalorganizationsandbehavesintermsofa set of procedures,thescopeis limitedIf,.on theotherhand,a large segmentofthepopulationispoliticallyorganizedandfollowsthepoliticalprocedures,thescopeis broad.Institutionsarestable,valued, recurringpatternsof behaviorOrganizations.and proceduresvary in theirdegreeof institutionalizationHarvard.Universityand the newlyopenedsuburbanhigh schoolare bothorganizations,but Harvardis muchmoreofan institutionthanis thehighschoolThe.

senioritysystemin CongressandPresidentJohnson'sselectpressconferencesarebothprocedures,butseniorityismuchmoreinstitution-

alizedthanareMr.Johnson'smethodsofdealingwiththepressIn.- stitutionalizationistheprocessbywhichorganizationsandprocedures acquirevalueandstabilityThe.levelofinstitutionalizationofanypoliticalsystemcanbedefinedbytheadaptability,complexity,autonomy, andcoherenceofitsorganizationsandproceduresSo. also,thelevel ofinstitutionalizationofanyparticularorganizationprocedurecan bemeasuredbyitsadaptability,complexity,autonomy,andcoherence. Ifthesecriteriacanbe identifiedandmeasured,politicalsystemscan be comparedin termsoftheirlevelsofinstitutionalizationFurther.- more,itwillbepossibletomeasureincreasesanddecreasesin theinstitutionalizationofparticularorganizationsandprocedureswithina politicalsystem.

ADAPTABILITY-RIGIDITY

Themoreadaptableanorganizationprocedureis,themorehighlyinstitutionalizedis; thelessadaptableand morerigidit is,the loweritslevelofinstitutionalizationAdaptability.is an acquiredorganizationalcharacteristicItis,.in a roughsense,a functionofenvironmentalchallengeand age. The morechallengeswhichhave ariseninitsenvironmentandthegreateritsage,themoreadaptable itis.Rigidityismorecharacteristicofyoungorganizationsthanofold ones.Old organizationsandprocedures,however,arenotnecessarily adaptableiftheyhaveexistedin a staticenvironmentIn.addition,if

overa periodoftimeanorganizationhasdevelopedasetofresponses

InstitutionalPatternsofPoliticalModernisation,"Civilisations,XII (No. 4, i962), 46i-72,

and xiii (No. i, i963), I5-26;

"Institutionalizationand Change,"AmericanSociological

Review,xxix (April I964),

235-47; "Social Change,Differentiationand Evolution,"

ibid., xxix (June i964), 375-86.

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