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Module 1

LESSON 1- 2

Write down the words into your vocabulary.

For manipulating data, according to, to consume power, to fit into, wrist watch, portable, by far, embedded computer, simple devices, ranging from … to, ability to store, to execute a program, versatile, to distinguish, capability, to perform, complexity, computational, to be not considerations, small enough to fit.

Find answers to the questions in the text.

  1. What is a computer?

  2. What were the early computers like?

  3. What are modern computers like?

  4. What is the most common form of computer in use today?

  5. What are embedded computers?

  6. What distinguishes computers from calculators?

Read and translate the text.

Computer

A computer is a machine for manipulating data according to a list of instructions. Computers take numerous physical forms. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers. Today, computers can be made small enough to fit into a wrist watch and be powered from a watch battery. Society has come to recognize personal computers and their portable equivalent, the laptop computer, as icons of the information age; they are what most people think of as "a computer". However, the most common form of computer in use today is by far the embedded computer. Embedded computers are small, simple devices that are often used to control other devices— for example; they may be found in machines ranging from fighter aircraft to industrial robots, digital cameras, and even children's toys. The ability to store, and execute programs makes computers extremely versatile and distinguishes them from calculators. Any computer with a certain minimum capability is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore, computers with capability and complexity ranging from a personal digital assistant to a supercomputer are all able to perform the same computational tasks so long as time and speed are not considerations.

Agree or disagree with the statements.

  1. All the computers have the same physical forms.

  2. Early electronic computers consumed as much power as several hundred modern personal computers.

  3. Today computers can be powered from a watch battery.

  4. The most common form of computer in use today is a laptop computer.

  5. Embedded computers are devices that are often used to control other devices.

  6. Embedded computers can be found in machines ranging from fighter aircraft to industrial robots, digital cameras, and even children's toys.

Complete the sentences.

  1. Early electronic computers were …

  2. Computers can be made small enough to fit into …

  3. Embedded computers are … that are often used to control other devices.

  4. Embedded computers may be found in machines ranging from … to industrial robots, digital cameras, and even children's toys.

  5. The ability to store, and execute programs makes computers … and distinguishes them from calculators.

  6. Computers with … ranging from a personal digital assistant to a supercomputer are all able to perform the same computational tasks so long as time and speed are not considerations.

Lesson 3- 4

Write down the words into your vocabulary.

Programmable device, to define devices once called "computers", to refer, numerical calculations, with the aid of, to include, abacus, slide rule, arguably, re-invigoration, number, improvement, punched paper cards, template, to allow, to weave intricate patterns, woven, can be viewed, albeit

Match the letter and the number.

  1. Programmability is a feature of a computer

  2. The definition of a computer

  3. Original meaning of the term “computer”

  4. Punched paper cards

Read and translate the text. History of computing

  1. The Jacquard loom was one of the first programmable devices. It is difficult to define any one device as the earliest computer. The very definition of a computer has changed and it is therefore impossible to identify the first computer. Many devices once called "computers" would no longer qualify as such by today's standards.

  2. Originally, the term "computer" referred to a person who performed numerical calculations, often with the aid of a mechanical calculating device. Examples of early mechanical computing devices included the abacus, the slide rule and arguably the astrolabe.

  3. The end of the Middle Ages saw a re-invigoration of European mathematics and engineering. A number of mechanical calculators were constructed by European engineers. However, none of those devices fit the modern definition of a computer because they could not be programmed.

  4. In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom that used a series of punched paper cards as a template to allow his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. The resulting Jacquard loom was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability.

Correct the statements using: that’s wrong, I (don’t) agree with it because…

  1. The Jacquard loom was the first programmable device.

  2. It is not difficult to define any one device as the earliest computer.

  3. Originally, the term "computer" referred to a device that performed numerical calculations.

  4. Examples of early mechanical computing devices didn’t include the abacus.

  5. A number of electronic calculators were constructed by European engineers.

  6. Those devices fit the modern definition of a computer because they could not be programmed.

  7. Punched paper cards didn’t allow the loom to weave intricate patterns automatically.

  8. The use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability.

Module 2 lesson 1- 2

Write down into your vocabulary.

To distinguish, to store, from one location to another , to send a message, external device, memory, to carry out (execute), to carry on, to happen conditionally, to skip, internal condition, flow of control within the program.

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