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Syntax Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Place Exercise 1

Write out the conjunctions used to join the adverbial clauses of place together with the prepositions, if any.

  1. We were invited to go back where he came from (Hughes).

  2. From where he sat he could see a cluster of apple-trees in blossom (Galsworthy).

  3. Take us to where we can work on this thing without being disturbed (Murdoch).

  4. Taking the advantage of having in their hands weapons which no other State had the equivalent at that time the US were testing atomic bombs whenever and wherever they liked without paying heed to what the people thought or spoke about (Daily Worker).1

  5. I am quite comfortable where I am (Wilde).

  6. And as soon as the messenger was gone he took a chair whence he could see the street (Galsworthy).2

Exercise 2

Translate the sentences into English using adverbial clauses of place.

  1. Оставайся там, где ты есть!

  2. Мы решили в конце концов оставить вещи там, где они были.

  3. Ученик смотрел куда угодно, но только не туда, куда показывал учитель.

  4. Я оставил тебе записку там, где мы договорились.

  5. Тетя Полли сказала Тому: «Иди, куда я тебе говорю, и не останавливайся ни с кем поболтать».

  6. Туристы сложили свои вещи в таком месте, где они не могли намокнуть.

  7. Я люблю проводить отпуск там, где можно купаться.

  8. Возвращайся туда, откуда ты пришел и продолжай свою работу.

Exercise 3 Define the type of the subordinate clauses joined by “where” and state whether “where” is a conjunction, a conjunctive adverb or a relative adverb.

1. The car which had passed him and lost him and then returned was just where it should have been, just where the player had desired it to be (Grimm).

  1. No one knew where the fighting was (Mitchell).

  2. Turning to the right she ran down the side garden path to where she had seen the face (Christie).

  3. The doctor mopped his brow and cast a quizzical glance at the corner, where his wife sat among the chaperons (Mitchell).

  4. But he isn’t where she thinks he is (Christie).

  5. Tuppence had intended taking her for a walk, but it was raining hard, so the two of them adjourned to the bedroom where Betty led the way to the bottom drawer of the bureau where her playthings were kept (Christie).

  6. Dear Raymond knows that if only I know where he is or where he is going I don’t worry quite so much (Christie).

  7. That was where they walked up the sleigh-smoothened road (Hemingway).

  8. Where the conference was didn’t matter much.

Exercise 4

Complete the sentences and define the type of the subordinate clause introduced by “where”.

  1. I didn’t know where …

  2. I met her at the place where…

  3. I discovered that the book was not where…

  4. The mother left the child where…

  5. Where she was waiting for me is…

  6. You should have gone to the town where…

  7. The difficulty was where…

  8. He walked straight into the hall where…

  9. I hoped I should find her where…

Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Time.

Exercise 1

Write out the conjunctions used to join the adverbial clauses of time.

1. The earth floor shook a little as they passed (Greene).

  1. When he entered the house she greeted him with a bright face (Gordon).

  2. Well, put your other shoe on while Tad’s reading to Sue (Carter).

  3. I must get a shine before I see the minister (Greene).

  4. After I had met her she told me about her past (Daily Worker).

  5. Roy … looked over the northern country until he saw what he expected to see (Aldridge).

  6. He’ll stay till I come out (Aldridge).

  7. She hangs up on me as soon as she recognizes my voice (Bellow).

  8. Don’t reckon I’ll ever get back to Albany as long as I live (Saxton).

  9. I haven’t thought of any one or anything else since I saw you last (Dreiser).

  10. He kissed her first on one cheek and then on the other whilst she stood helpless with the roasting tin, protesting (Greenwood).

  11. It was some while since the pain had returned, now that I was lying still and holding my breath (Greene).

  12. For some days afterwards he had an uncomfortable sensation of guiltiness whenever he was in Miss Mason’s presence (London).3

  13. No sooner had the first stepped into the clearing than all the lights went out as if by magic (Tolkien).4

  14. He had scarcely said the word, when Charmides entered (Jowett).

  15. Hong Kong is all hill except when the fog shuts out everything except the sea (Kipling).

  16. I had hardly finished when Holmes returned with the news that the boy was putting in the horse (Doyle).

Exercise 2

Paraphrase the sentences using adverbial clauses of time introduced by “since”. Give variants with different verb-forms wherever possible.

Models: I haven’t seen them since that incident.

I haven’t seen them since that happened.

He admitted that he had forgotten their faces since their meeting.

He admitted that he had forgotten their faces since they (had) met.

  1. You have never reproached me once since our separation (Saxton).

  2. I found MR Chou’s godown. Nothing had changed since my last visit (Greene).

  3. The cigarette didn’t taste very good. I hadn’t really enjoyed tobacco since my return from Dorset (Braine).

  4. Ever since our days on the farm I’ve wanted to tell you but could not (Gordon).

  5. This “Department of Dirty Tricks”, as it is called, has had a hand in every American plot against peace since the end of the war (Daily Worker).

  6. And as for himself – work, work, work … that’s all he had been since his discharge from the army … (Gordon).

  7. Since his reunion with Ren Anthony had spent all the time he could with her (Gordon).

Exercise 3

Make up complex sentences with adverbial clauses of time according to the models.

Model 1: Principal clause Subordinate clause

It is … since + a) Past Indefinite

b) Present Perfect (non-Continuous

or Continuous)

e. g. It is two hours since I saw them last.

It is two hours since she has been in the room.

  1. It is ten months since …

  2. It is over a year since…

  3. It is ages since…

  4. It is eight hours since…

  5. It is twenty minutes since…

Model 2: It was … since + a) Past Perfect

b) Past Indefinite

e.g. a) It was eight hours since the children had left.

b) It was a long time since we discussed the matter.

  1. It was ages since …

  2. It was a long while since …

  3. It was over twenty years since …

  4. It was over some time since …

  5. It was nine hours since …

Exercise 4

Make up complex sentences with adverbial clauses of time according to the model.

Model 1: Principal clause Subordinate clause


hardly + past perfect + when + past indefinite


e. g. He had scarcely entered the room when the bell rang.

  1. Mary had hardly seen her mother enter when …

  2. … when she cried.

  3. The doctor had scarcely examined the patient …

  4. … when the train arrived.

  5. Scarcely had …

Model 2: Principal clause Subordinate clause

No sooner + past perfect + than + past indefinite5

e. g. He had no sooner entered the room than the bell rang.

  1. She had no sooner left the house …

  2. … than they rushed out of the room.

  3. No sooner …

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