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English alphabet (the ABC)

Буква

Название буквы

Чтение буквы

Буква

Название буквы

Чтение буквы

Aa

[ei]

Nn

[en]

[n]

Bb

[bi:]

[b]

Oo

[oυ]

Cc

[si:]

[s], [k]

Pp

[pi:]

[p]

Dd

[di:]

[d]

Qq

[kju:]

Ee

[i:]

Rr

[a:]

[r]

Ff

[ef]

[f]

Ss

[es]

[s], [z]

Gg

[ʤi:]

[g], [ʤ]

Tt

[ti:]

[t]

Hh

[eiʧ]

[h]

Uu

[ju:]

Ii

[ai]

Vv

[vi:]

[v]

Jj

[ʤei]

[ʤ]

Ww

[`dʌbl ju:]

[w]

Kk

[kei]

[k]

Xx

[eks]

[ks], [gz]

Ll

[el]

[l]

Yy

[wai]

Mm

[em]

[m]

Zz

[zed]

[z]

Чтение гласных букв

Буква

I тип чтения

открытый слог

II тип чтения

закрытый слог

III тип чтения

гласная + r

(+ согласная)

IV тип чтения

гласная + r + гласная (e, y)

a

[ei]

name

[æ]

cat

[a:]

car, park

[εз]

care

e

[i:]

me, Pete

[e]

bed

[з:]

her

[iз]

here

i, y

[ai]

nine, pie, my, type

[i]

big, little, myth, `happy

[з:]

girl

[aiз]

fire, tyre

o

[oυ]

no, stone

[o]

not

[o:]

sport

[o:]

more

u

[u:], [ju:]

blue, tube

[ʌ]

bus

[з:]

turn

[υз], [jυз]

sure, cure

1. [ e ] [ i: ] ee [ i: ] [e – i:]

bed [bed] meddle [medl] me [mi:] Pete [pi:t] meet [mi:t] Ned – need ten – teen

Ted [ted] fettle [fetl] be [bi:] eve [i:v] deep [di:p] met – meet men – me

ten [ten] nettle [netl] bee [bi:] Steve [sti:v] beef [bi:f] fell – feel bed – be

end [end] mettle [metl] fee [fi:] dene [di:n] feet [fi:t] den – dene bet – beet

2. [ i ] [i – i:] [ ai ] [ i – ai ]

it his six `silly `kitten pit – Pete bit – beet tie five by type tip – type

is him mix `lucky `pyxis bid – bede sit – seet pie nine my lyme pin – pie

in kiss pyx `silky `system mill – mele tin – teen lie hide fly dyne link – line

ill did lynx `tizzy `visit hill – hele fit – feet die title sky fyke bit – bite

3. [ei] ai / ay [ei] [æ] [æ – ei] [æ – e] ea [i:]

name table main may am man Dan – day mat – mate pan – pen sea deal

pane stable pain pay Ann flat sad – say lad – laid bad – bed tea please

late fable nail nay at bad pat – pay man – main man – men seal leave

mate able vain day apple plan back – bay back – bake Pat – pet mean `easy

4. [s – z] ck [k] th [θ] [s – θ] th [ ð ] y [ j ]

bis – biz neck peck fifth thank sink – think these them yet yipe

hiss – hizz back sick thin teeth sick – thick the then yip yede

kiss – fizz lack stick thick theme seem – theme this than yin yelp

miss – mizzle black tick myth faith sin – thin that bathe yes yell

5. [ o ] [ oυ ] oi / oy [ oı ] sh [∫] ch / tch [ʧ]

on not no note `open boy point she shock chin patch

off box so smoke alone toy boil shame shade chat match

odd spot hello tone `mobile foy moist sheet shop chess speech

ox top nose those `motive hoy soil shy shine catch `kitchen

6. c + i / e / y [s] [k] [ s – k]

cent `civil `icy can `vacant mice – Mick cist – cosh nice – Nick

face `pencil `bicycle cap cake cent – can cine – cly face – fact

ice cite `cycle cane fact celt – clap cill – clove lice – lick

cell `city cyst cop candle cede – clash civvy – clan voice - `vocal

7. [ju:] [u:] [ ʌ ] [υ] uy [ai] ph [f]

tune cube blue sun club `funny full buy phase phi`lology

tube mute clue bus fuss `sunny put guy phene re`phrase

use `student slue dub plus `lucky push cluy Phil `physics

tulip `music spue luck slum `muddy pull tuy phone phlox

8. [ʤ] [ʤ – j ] [g] g + e / i / y [ʤ] oo [u:] oo + k [u]

Jim Jake jet – yet go globe gin page gym spoon book

Jane Jeep jess – yes glad game gibe stage gybe too look

jam jinn jinny – yin grey glide gise bridge gyn school hook

joke join jeep – yede big green gippy gem gyve food took

9. [w] [w – v ] wr [r] wh [w] wh + o [h] qu [kw]

we went wave wain – vain write white which who quick queen

way wake wide wail – vail wrist whale while whom quack quest

well wait with wine – vine wrap wheel why whose quell quote

win weed waist weed – veep wreck when when whole quod quite

10. [r] ar [a:] are/ary [εз(r)] [a:] - [εз]

red rain arm card park fare dare Mary car – care

rax read car carm start hare care vary bar – bare

ripe risk bar farm lark mare stare wary far – fare

rock marry far bark yard rare bare `parents dark – dare

11. or [o:] ore, oor [o:] [a:] - [o:] ng [ŋ] [n – ŋ] ng [ŋg] nk [ŋk]

fork sort more door far – for bang win – wing `English ink

born port bore floor farm – form sing thin – thing `angry bank

corn short wore store barn – born long ran – rang angle think

torn forth tore score card – cord ring ban – bang `hungry sank

12. [з:] [з:]- [o:] ere [iз] ere [εз] ire [aiз] ure [jυз]

her sir fur burn – born here there fire tired pure

term girl burn turn – torn sere where tire shire cure

nerve bird turn firm – form mere quire fired mural

`certain third curse shirt – short cere mire desire mure

13. air [εз] i + ld/nd [ai] igh [ai] -er[з] a + l [o:l] a + lk [o:k]

vair hair child mind high right `summer `matter all talk

air chair wild find nigh light `sister `better small chalk

pair stair mild bind might night `letter `number salt walk

fair `prairie vild hind fight bright `butter `winter halt stalk

14.

w/wh/qu + a (II) [wo] w/qu + a (III) [wo:] au(gh)/(aw) [o:] a + th или s /n + согласная [a:]

what quall war quarter `autumn pass ask past dance path

was quant warm quartz `daughter class task last France bath

want quash ward quart taught glass mask fast chance lath

wash quad warn `quarrel saw hassle `basket `master answer father

15. ou [aυ] [ʌ ] ou + ld [ud] ought [o:t] ow [aυ] ow [oυ]

out round couple should bought now down snow `yellow

house found cousin would ought how brown low `Moscow

sound count country could brought row tower show `window

noun scout double thought town flower own `fellow

16. oa [oυ] ew [ju:] o + n/m/th [ʌ ] kn [n] wor [wз:] [з: - o:]

coat new son come `mother knife work work – walk

boat sew month some `brother knight world word – ward

float few done `company `other know word worm – warm

load stew `London become another knew worm

Control reading:

1. – 2. tell, tent, Ned, bell, Ed, dent, dell, bent, be, bede, feme, mete, tee, meet, feet, beed, leep, peel, peep, left, teem, Nell, mend, Len, Lee, tend, beet, dene, vet, veet, Bess, seed, Betty, seen, lend, settle, spell, pee, bye, style, vine, my, hive, size, type, skin, six, `sixty, fizz, hit, hint, five, `fifty, slide, like, pills, tin, fine, middle, pin, test, `missy, best, less, dive, seems, bite, beef, send, ebb, bee, mend, in`vite, nest, slim, slime

3. – 4. sad, dad, daddy, Ann, bay, stale, tale, day, nappy, tenth, and, sable, tax, faith, `native, man, name, May, tail, deal, tea, eat, mean, sea, lead, keen, keep, did, deed, fact, fate, faith, say, Spain, saint, tilt, title, dine, dye, slip, sleep, the, these, teeth, myth, bathe, 'gather, thank, sank, thin, sin, that, sat, think, sink, thick, sick, stick, pack, lack, back, black, yet, yes, yell, yak, yam, line, ink, bye, sky, peeve, sleeve, mail

Six thick thistle sticks. Six thick thistles stick.

Six sick slick slim sycamore saplings.

Don't pamper damp scamp tramps that camp under ramp lamps.

5. – 6. stone, no, zone, nose, lone, `focal, foe, fox, fob, dock, flock, `pocket, `noisy, foil, poison, boy, toy, ash, she, shy, shake, shelf, fish, shall, dish, `foppish, chose, chat, chain, cheese, match, patch, ship, chip, sheep, cheap, shop, chop, cit, city, cite, cete, cent, cess, `cecils, peace, ponce, pace, pice, lace, voice, clay, cat, clamp, coin, clan, cake, cash, catch, 'cosy, cone, cost, came, sick, neck, keep, toil, yoke, choice, clock

Listen to the local yokel yodel.

A noisy noise annoys an oyster.

Chop shops stock chops.

Sam's shop stocks short spotted socks.

I slit the sheet, the sheet I slit, and on the slitted sheet I sit.

A bloke's back bike brake block broke.

Sarah sees a shot-silk sash shop full of shot-silk sashes as the sunshine shone on the side of the shot-silk sash shop.

7. – 8. plug, shut, but, must, chum, dull, bump, cup, `student, lune, cue, tube, puce, muse, fuse, `stupid, tube, phut, `phossy, `phantom, 'photo, josh, jole, joy, Joe, John, June, Ju'ly, jazz, jam, job, join, jell, yell, joke, yoke, jet, yet, bridge, gentle, cage, huge, gyps, gym, 'pygmy, big, gate, gamble, rag, gay, dog, guy, pig, egg, edge, `angel, angle, book, shook, room, fool, moon, `pupil, mice, stay, same, lump, buy, sphinx

A skunk sat on a stump and thunk the stump stunk, but the stump thunk the skunk stunk.

A big black bug bit a big black bear, made the big black bear bleed blood.

Give me the gift of a grip top sock: a drip-drape, ship-shape, tip-top sock.

Just think, that sphinx has a sphincter that stinks!

Frankly Frank flips fine flapjacks.

Crisp crusts crackle crunchily.

9. – 10. wife, wuff, way, wink, week, wit, wait, wave, wage, wine, vine, wet, vet, wail, vail, west, vest, woke, vote, wrist, wrack, wreck, whale, while, wheel, veal, quip, quake, quiz, quick, quill, quench, quid, wrote, whote, quote, write, white, quite, rain, read, rock, race, `ribbon, rose, ag'ree, rest, rope, green, jar, park, farce, sharp, smart, 'tardy, re'gard, `sarsen, mare, ware, dec'lare, part, pare, sharp, share, tart, tare, went, tea, twins, god, Jat, sale, jumble, grace, jock, joke, style, smash

Which witch wished which wicked wish?

A bloke's back bike brake block broke.

Six sharp smart sharks.

11. – 12. lord, tort, North, sport, spar, lore, lock, force, farce, store, stop, star, a'dore, serf, serve, germ, verse, stern, skirt, first, girl, birth, `thirsty, firm, form, shirt, short, curl, curve, churn, nurse, church, turn, torn, 'certain, 'curtain, ere, here, sphere, fire, spire, tired, de'sire, sure, pure, fury, spring, song, bang, bring, `going, `singing, `darling, single, angle, chute, bunch, gap, age, part, peace, case, change, `taking

We surely shall see the sun shine soon.

Twelve twins twirled twelve twigs.

Six shimmering sharks sharply striking shins.

She sells sea shells by the sea shore. The shells she sells are surely seashells. So if she sells shells on the seashore, I'm sure she sells seashore shells.

13 – 14. chair, air, hair, fair, lair, child, mild, find, kind, blind, night, might, light, `hunter, 'rubber, `silver, `river, summer, turner, waiter, reporter, all, ball, small, always, salt, walk, stalk, talk, chalk, what, was, watch, wash, quash, `quarry, `wharry, 'quarter, water, ward, wad, `warty, `wander, Paul, `author, caught, daughter, draw, dawn, 'awful, past, cast, ask, task, class, path, `father, last, chance, grass, trans'late, Steve

Nine nice night nurses nursing nicely.

On mules we find two legs behind and two we find before. We stand behind before we find what those behind be for.

You've no need to light a night-light on a light night like tonight, For a night-light's light's a slight light, and tonight's a night that's light.

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Did Peter Piper pick a peck of pickled peppers? If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?

Betty bought a bit of butter, better than her bitter butter, and she baked it in her batter, and the batter was not bitter.

Ned Nott was shot and Sam Shott was not.

Six slippery snails, slid slowly seaward.

Which wristwatches are Swiss wristwatches?

While we were walking, we were watching window washers wash Washington's windows with warm washing water.

Who washed Washington's white woolen underwear when Washington's washer woman went west?

Old oily Ollie oils old oily autos.

I saw Esau kissing Kate. I saw Esau, he saw me, and she saw I saw Esau.

15. – 16. out, house, mouth, mouse, round, sound, about, shout, ground, south, ouch, `cloudy, now, cow, crowd, down, `mellow, 'yellow, 'fellow, 'Moscow, bowl, throw, coat, road, boat, float, load, 'payload, few, news, hew, pew, chew, front, ton, month, 'honey, once, 'onion, some, 'company, 'comfortable, a'nother, other, knife, knell, knit, knight, words, worst, worse, while, tired, drink, air, thank, wall, call, bald, salt

Thank the other three brothers of their father's mother's brother's side.

I thought a thought. But the thought I thought wasn't the thought I thought I thought.

The boot black bought the black boot back.

Ruby Rugby's brother bought and brought her back some rubber baby-buggy bumpers.

If Stu chews shoes, should Stu choose the shoes he chews?

Cows graze in groves on grass which grows in grooves in groves.

How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood as a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood.

fate, fat, far, fare, faint, fast, fall, fair, faught, sede, set, serd, sere, seard, file, fill, first, fired, fight, fie, tube, tub, turn, tured, tung, tuy, cure, cube, cup, curb, cuy, bone, born, `bottom, bore, boil, bowl, boat

  1. Compose a noun: a verb + -er (Образуйте существительные: глагол + -er):

to tell – teller to meet – meeter to smoke – smoker

to use – user to jump – jumper to think – thinker

to eat – eater to make – maker to swim – swimmer

to pay – payer to play – player to send - sender

  1. Form the nouns and translate them:

to fly, to thank, to open, to do, to leave, to joke, to help, to wait, to drive

  1. Read, translate and remember:

to dictate – dictation to invite – invitation to translate – translation

to inform – information to declare – declaration to prepare – preparation

to demonstrate – demonstration to present – presentation to correct – correction

to transform – transformation to televise – television to discuss – discussion

to cooperate – cooperation to collect – collection

  1. Form the adverbs from the adjectives with -ly [li]and translate them:

deep – deeply happy – happily sweet – sweetly

bad – badly easy – easily nice – nicely

sad – sadly noisy – noisily angry – angrily

shy – shyly short – shortly serious – seriously

  1. Form adverbs with –ly and translate them into Russian: important, quick, glad, warm, slow, polite

  2. Read, translate and remember (noun, participle):

to read – reading to end – ending to begin – beginning

to meet – meeting to drive – driving to swim – swimming

to feel – feeling to make – making to run – running

to jump – jumping to smoke – smoking to plan – planning

  1. Form the nouns and participles from these verbs with –ing and translate them into Russian:

to eat, to use, to study, to joke, to drink, to leave, to wait, to clean, to teach, to finish, to write, to wash, to play, to invite, to jump, to help, to shut, to read, to leave, to run, to go, to begin, to clean, to study, to write, to look, to work, to build, to draw

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