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Vocabulary

alienate

»<5

вщцаляти

angle

<*5

точка зору, шдхщ

avoid

запобйати

compile

скласти

concise

-ч5

короткий, стислий

deadline

««5

крайнш термш

definition

45

визначення

exclusive

ексклюзивне повщомлення

facilitate

<5

полегшити

flatter

<■<5

шдлещуватися

guidelines

4?>

правила, шструкци, директиви

ironclad rules

«*5

«зашзш» правила

meet the deadline

«<5

виконувати вчасно

pitch letter

■sgb

ре кл ам н о - i и ф ор м a ni й ни й лист

priority

прюритет

props

рекв1зит

skew

спотворити

take the time

■45

не посшшати

vital

«45

житгево важливий

voice mail system

автовщповщач

Exercises

Ex. 1. Find the English equivalents in the text:

    1. заздалегщь

    2. взаемоповага 3)високо цитата

  1. фактична помилка

  2. неправильний опис

  3. неефективно

  4. достов1рний факт

  5. вщповщь, що задовольняе

  6. численш опитування

Ex. 2. Find the words in the text which describe or mean the following:

    1. rules or instructions about the best way to do smth. -

    2. a date or time by which you have to do or complete smth. -

    3. to add local interest material to a story -

    4. the thing that you think is most important and that needs attention before anything else -

    5. an important news story that is in only one newspaper, magazine, television news program etc. -

Ex. 3. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian. Make up sentences of your own:

      1. to meet a deadline to miss a deadline to set a deadline

to work under a tight a deadline at a deadline time

      1. to establish priorities

a top/ take/ get priority

to get one's priorities straight/right

Ex. 4. Match the words which are close in their meaning:

regularly

reliable

costly

conflict

disagreement

essential

solid

constantly

vital

expensive

Ex. 5. Match the words which are opposite in their meaning:

frivolous

redundant

timely

flexible

flatter

inopportune

ironclad

criticize

concise

sensible

Ex. 6. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian:

        1. Lawyers examined reams of documents.

        2. Jackson's comments alienated many baseball fans.

        3. It depends on your definition of success.

        4. Try approaching the problem from a different angle.

        5. Dividing students into small groups usually helps facilitate discussion.

Ex. 7. Answer the following questions:

          1. What should be done to know your media?

          2. How can you limit your mailings?

          3. Why is it important to localize your materials?

          4. What sort of information should be sent?

          5. How should news materials be written?

          6. Why should gimmicks be avoided?

          7. What does «to be environmentally correct» mean?

          8. Why should you be always accessible for the media?

          9. Why can't «no comment» be one of the possible answers to reporters' questions?

          10. In what way should you be fair to competing media?

          11. How can you help photographers?

          12. In what way should you react to errors?

Ex. 8. Can you explain the following:

            1. Reporters (like other people) have getting bogged down in the electronic swamp of endless button pushing.

            2. Countless surveys show that the most effective materials have a local angle.

Ex. 9. Develop two or three items of the general guidelines which you find the most important.

Start with:

From the point of view of... It has been pointed out that... I'd just like to say...

I think (suppose, guess, believe, dare say)... Personally I believe... In my opinion (view)... As I see it...

Text В

Types of Advertising

Advertising serves many purposes. Anyone can be an advertiser and advertising touches everyone.

It is possible to identify seven main categories of advertising, namely consumer, business-to-business, trade, relate, financial, direct response and recruitment

It is seen that each requires its own treatment regarding creative presentation and use of media as the heart of advertising.

Consumer advertising

These are two kinds of goods fought by the general public, consumer goods and consumer durables, which together with consumer services are advertised through media addressed to the appropriate social grades.

Consumer goods are the numerous goods to be found in the shops, those which enjoy repeat sales like foods, drinks, confectionery and toiletries.

Consumer durables are usually more expensive and less frequently fought. They include clothes. Furniture, domestic appliances, entertainment goods like radio, television, video.

Consumer services include services for security and well-being like banking, insurance, investment, repairs, and those to do with pleasure such as entertainments, hotels, restaurants, travel and holidays.

Business-to-business advertising

The purpose of business-to-business advertising is to promote non-consumer goods and services. These may include raw materials, components and accessories; plant and machinery; office equipment and supplies.

The media used will consist of trade and catalogues, trade exhibitions, direct mail, demonstrations and seminars.

Trade advertising

The purpose of trade advertising is to inform merchants and trades about available for resale, and it often announces special efforts to help retailers sell goods, e.g. price reductions, news packages, better trade terms, etc.

There could be a mix of two or three media add ressed to the trade: direct mail, trade exhibition, trade magazines, occasionally, commercial television.

Retail advertising

The most obvious examples of retail advertising are those for department stores and supermarkets.

The purpose of retail advertising is: to sell the establishment, attract customers to the premises, increase store traffic, that is the number of people passing through the shop to sell goods which are exclusive to the store, to sell the stock of the shop.

The principal media for retail advertising are: local weekly press, public transport posters, arena at sports ground, direct mail, window and in-store displays, catalogues, etc.

Financial advertising

The object of financial advertising may be to borrow or lend money, conduct all kinds of insurance, sell shares. Unit trusts, bonds and pension funds. Choice of media will depend on the target audience.

Recruitment advertising

This form of advertising aims to recruit staff and to fill vacancies.

The media are mainly made up of national newspapers, trade, technical and profession journals, regional press, free publications.

Progress comprehension test:

  1. What are consumer goods?

  2. What are consumer durables?

27

  1. What are consumer services?

  2. What does consumer advertising aim?

  3. Why is trade advertising necessary?

  4. What is the purpose of retail advertising?

  5. How can retail advertising help both the manufacturer and the distributor?

  6. Who usually uses financial advertising?

  7. What are the special characteristics of recruitment advertising?

  8. In what way must the advertisements be worded (express your own opinion)?

LESSON 4

Text A

Types of Public Relations Advertising

The largest percentage of public relations advertising is done in magazines, with network television and newspapers and Sunday supplements in second and third place, respectively.

Magazines, which are already specialized, will probably continue to get the lion's share of «image» advertising.

There are several types of public relations advertising. We will deal with five basic types: image-building, investor and financial relations programs, public service messages, advocacy, and announcements.

Image-building

Not only can advertising strengthen an organization's reputation and image, but it can also contribute to consumer and client acceptance of the organization's products and services. Consumers don't just buy a product; they also buy the company if it is perceived as being well managed, socially responsible, environmentally conscious, and willing to stand behind its products.

A good example of an image-building campaign is one by NYNEX, the telephone company serving New York State and New England. The company decided to put a human face on high

technology with a series of ads that focused on its employees working for and with customers to solve their telephone problems.

Investor and Financial Relations

A different type of public relations advertising is targeted to the financial community - individual and institutional investors, stock analysts, investment bankers, and stockbrokers. .The objective is to portray a company's financial strengths and prospects in the most flattering way.

Such advertising is used extensively during fights for control of companies, when a company is undergoing some major reorganization, or when the company believes it is being unfairly attacked by consumer groups or regulatory agencies. A variety of these ads can be seen in financial publications.

Public Service

Public service advertisements provide information, tips, and how-to suggestions. A number of nonprofit and charitable organizations use such advertising for public education, for example: The American Cancer Society gives information about vegetables and fruits that can reduce the risk of cancer. ^ The American Heart Association informs people about the warning

signs of a heart attack. ^ The .American Lung Association warns people about the dangers of smoking.

^ The Pacific Gas and Electric Company provides helpful hints on how to reduce energy costs during the winter months

Advocacy

Although persuasion is an advocacy advertising. This often means trying to get readers or viewers to agree with the position of the advertiser on some issue. Ideally, the advertising campaign will cause people to change attitudes, modify behavior, and even take steps to influence others about the issue.

A good example of an advocacy campaign designed to achieve a specific goal is the National Cable Television Association, facing public pressure for Congress to pass a bill to regulate cable television rates, also used an extensive advertising campaign to change public attitudes about the industry.

Announcement

Announcement can be used for any category of public relations advertising. Their primary use is to inform the public promptly about something that affects everyone. Recalling a product, explaining a failure of service, or rebutting a change of irresponsibility are appropriate announcements.

percentage supplements respectively target (v) acceptance perceive (v) well managed responsible stand behind (v)

institutional stock

become blurred portray (v) prospects flattering (wa) the American Cancer Society

the American heart

Association

the American Gas and

Electric Company

advocacy

persuasion

get smb. do smth.

issue

modify (v)

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