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The Republic of Belarus

The Republic of Belarus is situated in the center of Europe. It borders on Latvia, Lithuania, the Ukraine, Russia and Poland. The territory is much larger then such countries as Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Greece and the number of others. Its present population is about 10 million people. Belarus is a land of vast plains and picturesque hills, thick forests, deep blue lakes and flowing rivers. Forests cover to sad (2\3) of Belarus, they are scattered all over the country. There are a lot of river and lakes in our country. The Dnieper, Pripyat, Beresins, Sozh, Zapadnaya Dvina, Neman are the biggest rivers with more than 500 kilometers in length. Belarus has a moderately continental climate due to Atlantic influences with a worm winter and with a worm summer.

The history of Belarus goes back to ancient times beginning with the Polotsk Principality in the 10th century. From the 13th century till the 16th century the territory of present-day Belarus was the core of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in which Belarusian was the official language. It was one of the largest, most powerful and flourishing state in Eastern Europe. As Belarus is situated in the center of Europe many wars took place in its territory. One of the greatest wars was in 1812 when the emperor Napoleon attacked Russia. And Belarusian lands became the arena of military actions.

In the 20th century alone Belarus has lived through three revolutions and three bloody wars. The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 is one of the most heroes and tragic periods in the history of the century. For three years the territory of Belarus was occupied by the Nazi. The country lost more than 3 million people, many towns and villages were ruined. Belarus lost more than half of its national wealth.

Today Belarus is a developed industrial state. Industry makes up 70% of the Gross National Product. The main industries are engineering, chemical industry, wood-working industry, light and food industries. The major industrial centers in Belarus are Minsk, Gomel, Vitebsk, Mogilev, Soligorsk, Zhodino, Brest and other. Agriculture of Belarus specializes in milk and meat production, flax, vegetables and fruit.

The Republic of Belarus has well-developed science and educational system. The Academy of Sciences founded in 1929 is one of the largest centers of science in our country. Nowadays in Belarus there are 43 universities, academies and institutes which provide training in various spheres of science and humanities. At present Belarus actively participates in an effective international partnership with the government of different states and international organizations. Belarus cooperates with such countries as Germany, Denmark, France, Canada, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, Great Britain, The USA and many others.

The Executive of rb

The head of executive power in the Republic of Belarus is a President.

The Fundamental Law of Republic of Belarus establishes the requirements to the candidate for Presidency: citizenship of the Republic of Belarus, not younger than 35 years of age, having the right to vote, and having permanent residence in the Republic of Belarus for at last ten years (before the election).

The Government – the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus is the central body of state administration, the executive power in the Republic of Belarus.

In its activity, the Government is accountable to the President and responsible to Parliament.

The Government of the Republic of Belarus manages the system of state administrative bodies and other bodies of executive power subordinated to it.

The Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus is a collective body. It includes the Prime Minister, his deputies and the ministers. The Government may also include the heads of other central bodies of state administration.

The Constitution establishes the right of the Government to issue resolutions which are binding in the entire territory of the Republic of Belarus, and to cancel the decisions of ministries and other bodies of state administration.

The Council of Ministers is one of the bodies which possess the right of law-making initiative. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President with the consent of the House of Representatives. The Prime Minister holds personal responsibility for the Government’s activities. The Government terminates its powers before the newly elected President of the Republic of Belarus.

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