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I. Translate the text into Ukrainian in writing.

Иногда проблемы увеличиваются с депрессией одного члена семьи, плюс брачным конфликтом. В этих обстоятельствах могут быть необходимыми несколько подходов к лечению, которые зависят от природы проблемы и готовности членов семьи участвовать в лечении. В общем, психолог не обеспечит индивидуальную психотерапию одному члену семьи, и видит целую семью для семейной терапии или в то же время пару для терапии пары.

Однако, иногда семейная терапия для проблем детского поведения включает индивидуальные сессии с родителями, которые создаются, чтобы помочь с родительскими навыками, чтобы не сделать индивидуальную терапию или брачную терапию. Можно обеспечить индивидуальную психотерапию двум членам семьи, но иногда это создает проблему, и психологам все время приходится оценивать эффективность этого подхода.

Все психологи не обеспечивают парную и семейную терапии, но те, которые занимаются этим, в основном получали специализированное обучение теориям семейных систем, и в семье и навыках парной терапии.

III. Answer the following questions.

1.What are the main stages of human life?

The main stages of human life are childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. In one popular contemporary international classifications (B. Quinn, 2000), divided into the following main stages of human life: 1) infancy - birth to 3 years; 2) early childhood - from 3 to 6 years; 3) childhood - from 6 to 12 years; 4) adolescent (juvenile) age - from 12 to 18 years; 5)Youth - 18 to 40 years; 6) mature age - from 40 to 65 years; 7) advanced age - 65 years.

2.What points of view may professional psychologists use in solving a particular problem?

A professional psychologist may solve a problem from the point of view of social influences or looking at personal habits and past experiences, or from the point of view of understanding how people process information in their minds.

Professional psychologist to use the whole arsenal of his knowledge is applicable in this situation, including both theoretical and practical aspects.

3.What is the difference between a psychologist and psychiatrist?

Psychologist - not a doctor (usually), which helps mentally normal people to correct state of mind, so as not to bring yourself to neurosis. Psychiatrist - a doctor who treats mental illness (psychosis). Common - all engage in a psyche.

Psychologist helps normal people find the right solution in different difficult situations. A psychiatrist treats a truly mentally ill people.

Psychiatrist – is a psychologist with medical education. He is a doctor and can prescribe medication. Psychologist simply makes the analysis of what is happening or what happened.

4.What are the main questions of individual psychology?

Inividual psychology - the direction of deepth psychologyfounded by A. Adler. Basic idea - to investigate integrity of personality without dividing of her by conscious and unconscious. In all aspects of the personality is leading such a quality as the realization of life's purpose or meaning in life, which begins in a child already in the first 3 - 5 years and which formed a special lifestyle. As a goal, and the style of a person's life is closely related to the conditions of family upbringing. In what is considered the driving force behind the development of social interest as a desire to collaborate with others to achieve common goals.

5.What do physiological psychologists study?

physiological psychology study the two major communication systems of the body - the nervous system and circulatory system - are the focus of research in this area. The nervous system consists of the central nervous system (the brain and the spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system, which includes the sensory receptors for seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, feeling pain and sensing stimuli within the body. an important part of psychology is concerned with understanding how our physiological state influences us. The research of a physiological psychologist might be about studying the effects of brain damage or how drugs work, or it might involve studying sleep and dreaming, or looking at the physiological effects of stress and how they can be reduced.

Physiological psychology is a subdivision of biological psychology that studies the neural mechanisms of perception and behavior through direct manipulation of the brains of nonhuman animal subjects in controlled experiments.

6.Why is it necessary for psychologists to study how animals interact with one another?

It is necessary because it allows to trace the parallels between the behavior of people and animals. So we can build a model of human behavior.

7.What negative emotions can you name?

anger or sadness

For example - greed , panic, fear, hate, anger, jealousy.

8.What methods are used in psychological investigation?

There are lots of methods, but the most important are: experiment, Naturalistic Observation, testing, interviewing etc.

9.Name some subfields of psychology.

Clinical Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Personality Psychology, social Psychology. Educational psychology, Industrial and organizational psychology.

10.What is the main task of educational psychologist?

The main task of educational psychologists is to help children in kindergartens and schools. Educational psychologists conduct psychological adaptation for special children, they organize psychological research, they are working on the psychological climate in groups etc.

11.Does psychology of today have the status of a science?

Yes, it does. It is the scientific study of behavior and experience of human beings and animals. How they sense, think, learn, and know. Modern psychology is devoted to collecting facts about behavior and experience and systematically organizing such facts into psychological theories.

12. How does the science influence us?

The science helps us to understand and explain people’s behavior and sometimes to predict and influence their future behavior.

13.Give the definition of psychology.

Psychology, scientific study of behavior and experience – that is the study of how human beings and animals sense, think, learn and know. Psychology as a science studies mental activity and human behaviour.

14.What does the word “psychology” mean?

The word psychology literally means “the study of the soul”.

15.What does psychology study?

а)Psychology studies of all forms of human and animal behavior, sometimes concerned with the methods through which behavior can be modified. Psychology is divided into many subfields of study. For example, physiological psychologists study the functioning of the brain and the nervous system, and experimental psychologists devise tests and conduct research to discover how people learn and remember.

б) Psychology study the functioning of the brain and the nervous system; experimental psychologists devise tests and conduct research to discover how people learn and remember; social psychologists are interested in the ways in which people influence one another and the way they act in groups; industrial psychologists study the behaviour of people at work and effects of their work on the environment; school psychologists help students to make educational and career decisions; clinical psychologists assist those who have problems in daily life or who are mentally ill.

16.What is the role of psychology in everyday life?

Physiology helps us to understand and explain people’s behavior and sometimes to predict and influence their future behavior. Psychology is the study of human behavior and thinking. It is important because it helps you to understand yourself better. It also helps you to understand other people. If you understand psychology, you can change your own behavior and help other people to change theirs. You can also predict how other people are going to react to things.

17.What is social psychology concerned with?

Social psychology concerned with the scientific study of the behavior of individuals as influenced, directly or indirectly by social stimuli. Social psychologists are interested in the thinking, emotions and judgments of individuals, as well as in their overt behavior.

18.What is the main thesis of humanistic psychology?

Humanistic psychology sought to glimpse the whole person – not just the fragmented parts of the personality or cognitive functioning. Humanism focused on fundamentally and uniquely human issues, such as individual free will, personal growth, self-actualization, self-identity, death, freedom, and meaning.

19.What is psychology according to different sources?

Plato and Aristotle studied the following questions in psychological field: How do people come to know the world? Are certain ideas and feelings innate or are they all learned?

Descartes idea was that some mental organization is innate, and the concept still plays a role in theories of perception and cognition.

20.What problems is modern psychology devoted to?

Modern psychology devoted to collecting facts about behaviour and experience and systematically organizing such facts into psychological theories. These theories aid in understanding and explaining people’s behaviour and sometimes in predicting and influencing their future behaviour.

21.Why do people behave nervously when they think about school or university exams?

Habits are behaviour or feelings that are associated with particular settings or situations. We learn ways of acting in certain places, or with certain people, and these come back to us if we find ourselves in that situation again. At such times, we can surprise ourselves with how we react. It is interesting, for example, how an exam room can affect us, even if we are actually taking the exam. Exam rooms are something we always only encounter at school and under quite tense conditions. People are usually worried and anxious when they go into an exam room to take an exam. Because we do not usually have anything to do with them at other times, those feeling of worry and anxiety come flooding back when we go into an exam room – even years later. So we act nervously, and not like our usual selves at all.

22.What do psychologists pay attention to?

Psychologists shifted their attention to a more concrete approach to the study of man. They began to concentrate upon the observable effects of the mind – that is, the way in which we behave. Psychology may be defined then as the scientific study of the behaviour of man and other animals. It is not the only branch of science that examines people, but psychology differs from other disciplines in that it is concerned chiefly with behaviour.

23.What emotions are usually prevailing in your daily life?

Different emotions are prevailing in my everyday life. It contingently different events which take place with me every day. But, it is possible to select a few basic emotions which prevail in my everyday life. It is interest, surprise, gladness, grief, sorrow, anger, hostility, fear and alarm.

24.What sciences study a human being?

Now there are many sciences. They are intended for the study of the most different processes and phenomena in our life. But there are such sciences, which study only a man with his own life. They are humanities. First of all it is needed to name psychology, including all its industries: age-dependent psychology, social psychology, general psychology etc. Also a man is studied by such sciences, as philosophy, sociology, medicine, biology, pedagogics and many other.

25.What is the main task of educational psychologist?

Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.

26.What methods of breaking phobias do you know?

One method for doing this is called systematic desensitisation. In this method, the person gradually learns to relax in the presence of the object. They begin with something very indirect and non-threatening, like, say, a picture of the object, and learn to relax while looking at it. Another approach is much more direct. The fear response is all about getting as much energy available as possible. So it is very demanding of the body's resources, and it is hard for us to keep it up for long. After a while, the physiological fear reaction dies away, and we calm down, even if we are still in the presence of the thing that we are frightened of. So another approach to treating phobias, known as implosion therapy, is simply for the person to be placed in a room with the thing that they are frightened of until the fear goes.

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