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AROUND AND ABOUT.rtf
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3.12 Answer the following questions:

1 Where is Russia situated?

2 What is Russia washed by?

3 What countries does the Russian Federation border on?

4 What is lake Baikal noted for?

5 What are the most important rivers in Russia?

6 What is the deepest lake in Russia?

7 What types of climate are there on the territory of Russia?

8 What can you say about the population of Russia?

9 How large is the population of Russia?

10 Is Russia rich in natural resources?

11 Is Russia’s industry well-developed?

12 What is the official language of the Russian Federation?

13 What is the capital of Russia?

3.13 Study the factfile:

Official name: The Russian Federation

Capital: Moscow

Population number: about 150 mln

Natural Regions: the East European Plain

the West Siberian Plain

the Central Siberian Plateau

the Far East

Mountain Systems: the Altai, the Caucasus, the Cherskiy,

the Pamir, the Sayan, the Tian Shan, the Ural

The highest Peak: Elbrus – 18,481 feet (5,633 metres)

Major Rivers: the Amur, the Angara, the Irtysh, the Lena, the Ob, the Volga,

the Yenisey

Major Lakes: Baikal, Ladoga, Onega

Natural Zones: Tundra (along the Arctic coast), taiga (north and central half of the country), forest, forest-steppe, steppe

Climate: Long bitter winters and short summers (tundra)

Long severe winters, short springs and summers (taiga)

Long cold winters, hot moist summers (forest)

Cold winters and hot dry summers (steppe)

Chief Agricultural Products: Crops, sugar, beets, wheat, potatoes, barley, rye, oats, cabbage, tomatoes, sunflowers.

Cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, poultry, fish, seafood

Chief Mined Products: Coal, oil, natural gas, iron ore, salt, bauxite, lead, tin,

manganese, zinc, copper, nickel, molybdenum, gold, etc.

Chief Manufactured Products: Iron, steel, cement, mineral fertilizers, chemicals, food products, wood products, machine tools, food processing equipment, chemical equipment, oil and gas equipment

Currency: 1rouble = 100kopecs

3.14 Speak about the country you live in.

UNIT 4 THE TYUMEN REGION

4.1 Answer the questions:

1. What is your native town? Is it located on the territory of the Tyumen Region?

2 What is the Tyumen Region famous for?

3 Where is the Tyumen Region situated?

4 What is the capital of the Tyumen Region?

5 What well-known towns are there in the Tyumen Region?

4.2 Read the text through to be ready to do a few exercises after it.

The Tyumen Region

The Tyumen Region was formed on August 14, 1944, and it is one of Russia's largest regions. It has an area of 1.4 million sq.km, which is equivalent to the combined areas of Germany, France, Italy, and Great Britain. More than 80 percent of the area is occupied by the Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets autonomous okruga. Centuries ago the Region was called the Gate of Siberia because of its historical position and political meaning. Nowadays we may call the Tyumen Region the Gate of Treasureland.

The Tyumen Region is Russia's third-largest region in area and thirteenth largest in population. The population increased due to migration in the years when the oil and gas industry was forming and developing. It is also one of Russia's most multinational regions, with representatives of 125 nationalities. Russians form the largest group. The Regional capital Tyumen, with the population of over 500 000, is the Region's administrative, scientific and cultural centre. It is situated on the banks of the Tura River.

The Tyumen Region occupies a large part of the West Siberian Plain and in fact divides Russia into two large territories: a western part consisting of the Urals and European Russia and an eastern, Asiatic part consisting of Siberia and the Far East. Extreme climatic conditions are characteristic of the Region. Nature in the Tyumen land is rich and varied, owing to the Region's location in different natural climatic zones: Arctic tundra in the Far North with its scanty vegetation of mosses and lichens and poor soils changes southward to typical tundra and forest tundra, then to taiga with spruce, fir, pine, larch, and birch, and finally to forest-steppe and steppe in the south. The Region has a northern border on the Karsk Sea and has an extensive network of deep rivers, a large number of lakes. The Region's largest rivers, the Ob’ and Irtysh, are navigable. A large part of the Region is covered with forests. The Region also has considerable land resources, including more than 4 million hectares of agricultural land. Most of the arable land is concentrated in the southern part of the Region, where the climatic conditions allow the cultivation of grain, potatoes, staple vegetables, and feed crops.

Until the 1960s economic activity was confined to timber working, fur trapping, and reindeer herding, and communications were extremely sparse; only in the forest-steppe south was agriculture important.

A new chapter of the history of the Tyumen Region began in 1964 with the Discovery of the Century. Major oil deposits were opened along the Ob. Towns and communications have developed as a result of increasing production. Development of the oil and gas fields fundamentally changed the life in the Tyumen Region. New cities such as Surgut, Khanty-Mansiysk, Urengoi, Kogalym, Noyabr’sk arose. The Region's population increased many times. Hundreds of thousands of people arriving from all parts of the country to work out oil and gas fields formed a new generation. The Region became a second home for them and the birthplace of their children. The Region has a population of more than 3 million. People of working age make up a large percentage of the population. Today, the Tyumen Region is both the country's largest and one of the world's largest natural resource storehouses. In addition to oil and gas, the Region is famous for peat, sapropel, quartz sand, ceramic clays, limestone, building stones and mineral water. The main industrial centres are located in Tyumen and other towns of the Region. Oil and gas industry is the foundation of the Regional economy.

Forest and woodworking industries play an important role in the Region's development. Owing to the Region's extreme climatic conditions and far northern location, farmland occupies a small part of its territory. Livestock farms raise cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses, and poultry. Agricultural organizations in the autonomous districts specialize in the production of milk, eggs and greenhouse vegetables. Fishing and reindeer herding are traditional occupations of the native people.

4.3 Match the words and word-combinations in A with their Russian equivalents in B:

A B

1 migration a) многонациональный

2. to be equivalent b) значительный

3 treasureland c) кладовая

4 arable d) граница

5 to increase e) место рождения

6 multinational f) климатические условия

7 storehouse g) поколение

8 considerable h) местоположение

9 climatic conditions I) северный олень

10 border j) природные ресурсы

11 generation k) сокровищница

12 birthplace l) пространный, обширный

13 location m) занимать место

14 extensive n) домашний скот

15 natural resources o) быть равным

16 livestock p) увеличивать, возрастать

17 reindeer q) пахотный

18 to occupy r) переселение

4.4 Combine the words in A and B to form phrases:

A B

1 to be equivalent to a) a new generation

2 to increase b) of smb’s children

3 multinational c) the production

4 to form d) region

5 considerable e) of deep rivers and lakes

6 the birthplace f) location

7 to be covered g) land resources

8 to specialize in h) natural resources

9 extensive network i) the area

10 to be famous for j) population

11 advantageous k) with forests

4.5 Think over your own sentences with the words and word-combinations in activities 4.3, 4.4.

Model: The Tyumen Region is multinational.

4.6 Read the passages and number them in the correct order:

a) But five more centuries were to pass before groups of brave men attracted by the abundance of fur-bearing animals built the first wooden fortresses at Tyumen, Tobolsk, Surgut, and elsewhere.

b) This lowland area – in places it lays below sea level – is one of the most extensive and flattest in the world and forms the gate to Siberia. The green background of forest and swampland is shot through with the silver threads of rivers. On the vast territory it is possible to allocate four natural zones: tundra, forest, taiga and forest-steppe. This huge area includes among others the Tyumen and the Tomsk regions.

c) This region was a remote province for many years, though the land was famed for its furs and fish. Nobody could imagine what huge seas of oil were concealed under this land of forest, lakes and marshes.

d) Western Siberia occupies the huge expanse (area) between the Urals and the Yenisey River and extends from the dry steppes of Khazakhstan in the south to the cold shores of the Arctic Ocean in the north. With an area of 936,000 square miles, it is one of the largest natural regions of Russia.

e) In ancient times the Russian merchants and Novgorod warriors who already stood at the doors of Siberia by the 11th century believed that they would find the legendary land of Lukomorye here, filled with fairy-tale riches.

(from “Siberia: Epic of the Century”, by Vito Sansone)

4.7 Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word-combinations:

the huge expanse / lowland area / extensive / flat / swampland / threads of rivers / merchants / warriors / the abundance of fur-bearing animals / wooden fortresses / to conceal / to be famed for / forest / lake / marsh / fairy-tale riches / legendary land / to be attracted by / huge seas / to conceal.

4.8 Read these statements about the Tyumen Region. Are they true (T) or false (F)? If the statement is false, correct it.

1 The Tyumen Region is the largest one in Russia.

2 The Tyumen Region is a remote province.

3 The Tyumen Region extends from the Urals to the Far East.

4 The territory of Tyumen Region is mountainous.

5 The Tyumen Region is rich in natural resources.

6 The Tyumen Region is a hundred years old.

7 There are four natural zones in the Region.

4.9 Complete the following sentences:

1 The Tyumen Region was formed…..

2 Its area is equivalent to…..

3 The population increased due to…..

4 Western Siberia occupies…..

5 The brave men were attracted by…..

6 Nature in the Tyumen land is…..

7 The vast territory includes four natural zones, such as.….

8 The Region's largest rivers are…..

9 The Region is famous for…..

10 The foundation of the Regional economy is…..

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