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IV. Read and translate the text: The Pechoro- Ilychskiy Forest Reserve

The Pechoro- Ilychskiy Forest Reserve lies between the upper reaches of the Pechora and its right tributary, the Ilych. The initial purpose of the reserve was to conserve fur- bearers, especially the sable. The reserve was established in 1930. Its area is now 7 thousand sq. km. The head- quarters and base for scientific studies is Yaksha, a village on the Pechora. Beaver, Marten, Otter, Elk and wild Reindeer are common there. The vegetation is also an object of study. Of particular interest has been the work done since 1939 on domestication of elk.

V. Read and translate the text. Answer the questions following it. The History of the Land of Komi

The land of Komi attracted the attention of Russian princes since the remotest days. It is the place where the first Russian mining-metallurgical field and the first Russian plant appeared.

The first mentioning of silver and copper fields on the river Tsilma dates back to 1213, but only in the 15th century they were given a proper attention. In 1490 the Russian Tsar Ivan III sent the first Russian government geological expedition, headed by Andrew Petrov and Vasilij Boltin, to prospect for silver and copper ore. As a result on the 8th of August it was found. That year (1491) is considered to be the beginning of the development of the mining- metallurgical field of the state of Moscovia. At that time the smelted metal was sent to Vologda by means of water transportation and then farther to Moscow. But it turned out that the amount of silver ore was too little for its mining and, besides, copper ore contained 50 % of metal. All these factors alongside with severe climatic conditions stopped the development of this industry.

Later several other attempts for prospecting and mining of copper and silver ore on the river Tsilma were made, but practically all of them faced the same problems.

At the same time the oil industry was being developed. The oil fields in the vicinity of Ukhta were first mentioned in chronicles even in the 15th century: it was said there that the native people used oil to cure illnesses and also to lubricate the axes of the carts. At the end of the 16th century the first samples of Ukhta oil were delivered to Moscow and later to St.Petersburg. But the development of the oil field was not done regularly in spite of the fact that it was known even abroad.

And only in 1745 on the 18th of November a small plant appeared, founded by the Russian ore-seeker, merchant and enterprising businessman Fedor Pryadunov. The first oil was extracted in 1746 and was used mainly for illumination in medicine and in the army. But due to the high cost of the product and of its transportation from Komi to Moscow in the 1760s the plant was closed and was regenerated only in the 20th century.

Words and expressions:

a prince- зд: князь

a mining-metallurgical field- горно-металлургический промысел

to prospect- разведывать, вести разведку

ore- руда

by means of- при помощи, посредством

mining- разработка

to lubricate- смазывать

a cart-телега

axis (axes)- ось (оси)

a sample- проба

an ore-seeker- рудоискатель

to regenerate - возрождать

Questions to be answered:

1. The land of Komi attracted the attention of Russian ore-seekers since the remotest days, didn’t it?

2. When were silver and copper fields on the river Tsilma first mentioned?

3. When was the first Russian government geological expedition sent to prospect for silver and copper ore?

4. What year is considered to be the beginning of the development of the mining-metallurgical field in the state of Moscovia?

5. What stopped the development of the mining- metallurgical field?

6. What industry was being developed alongside with the mining- metallurgical field?

7. When were the oil fields first mentioned in the chronicles?

8. What did the native people use oil for?

9. When did the first oil plant appear?

10. Why was the plant closed in the 1760s?

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