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Exercise 10. Approve or disapprove the following statement.

  1. When a person develops cancer, it means that these "natural" defences are no longer effective against the cancer.

  2. The cells of a benign tumour can destroy healthy cells, but they can spread to other parts of the body.

  3. A benign tumor is a tumor that lacks the ability to metastasize.

  4. Benign neoplasms are typically composed of cells which bear a strong resemblance to a normal cell type in their organ of origin.

  5. In some cases, certain "benign" tumors may not later give rise to malignant cancers, which result from additional genetic changes in a subpopulation of the tumor's neoplastic cells.

  6. Most benign tumors do not respond to chemotherapy or radiation therapy, although there are exceptions.

  7. The treatment for cancer is usually designed by a team of doctors or by the patient's oncologist and is based on the type of cancer and the stage of the cancer.

  8. Most treatments are designed specifically for each individual.

Exercise 11. Make up the dialogue of your own using any following questions. Questions to Ask Your Doctor after a Cancer Diagnosis

  1. What type of cancer do I have? How was the diagnosis established? Are there any other diagnostic tests that could provide useful information?

  2. What is the extent of spread (stage) of the cancer? To what extent does the stage of the cancer influence treatment?

  3. Should I get a second opinion? Can you recommend someone who could provide a second opinion?

  4. What are the treatment options? How do you decide among the different options? Are there investigational treatments or clinical trials available for this type of cancer?

  5. How much is known about the type of cancer that I have? How common is this cancer and the type of treatment I am to receive? Would I be better off being treated in a more specialized center?

  6. What is your experience in treating this type of cancer? What have been the results of this treatment, in your experience?

  7. How much time should I take to make a decision about treatment?

  8. What is the goal of treatment (for example, to completely eradicate the tumor, to reduce the size of the tumor, to alleviate symptoms)?

  9. How often must I receive treatment? How will I feel after treatment? If there will be side effects of treatment, are there any medications that can help prevent or lessen the severity of these?

  10. How soon can I return to normal activities after treatment?

Exercise 12. Translate into English and make up the sentences of your own.

Формувати ракову тканину, боротися з нормальними клітинами, обмежуватися тільки тваринами, потреби організму, проривати початкову масу клітин, тиснути на органи та нерви, рак товстої кишки, подорожувати по лімфатичній системі, виконувати роботу правильно, поселитися в інших органах, непрогресуюча хвороба, інвазивні властивості раку, Національний Інститут раку, відповідати за рак, фактор ризику,компресія життєвоважливих органів, позбавлятися раку, фіброзна оболонка, гальмувати здатність швидко загоюватися, непрохідність кишечнику, побічні дії випромінювання, послаблення болю, тератома ( ембріоцитома).

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