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Exsercises

  1. Write 10 questions to each text from the unit.

  2. Write out of each text the sentences with the verbs in the Passive voice.

  3. Translate any part of the texts (1500 signs) in writing.

  4. Retell text about «ARJ21».

  5. Speak on «BAE 146 Short / Medium-Range Airliner».

Unit VI. Company sukhoi Sukhoi

Company Sukhoi enterprises develop and manufacture mostly aviation technical applications of military purpose. Currently, the Su-27, Su-24, Su-25 types of aircraft and Su-33 ship borne aircraft are in service of the Russian Air Force and Navy. «Su» type combat aircraft were supplied to India, China, Iraq, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Germany, Syria, Algeria, Korean Republic, Vietnam, Afghanistan, Yemen, Egypt, Libya, Iran, Angola, Ethiopia, Peru. Total number of more than 2000 «Su» aircraft was supplied to foreign countries on export contracts. In late 80s, Company Sukhoi designers performed a break through in the sphere of super agility modes. Maneuvers such as «Pugatchyov Cobra», «Hook», «Somersault» and others can not be carried out by any foreign aircraft. Starting from the middle 90s, aircraft developed by the Company Sukhoi are equipped with TVC engines designed by JSC «Lyulka-Saturn». It extended the area of mastered superagility modes and excluded stall and spin problems. At present, major direction of corporation activities in the military aviation sphere is development of the export oriented Su-З0МК and Su-35 multifunctional fighters, Su-32 fighter-bomber, Su-39 strike aircraft and their operational implementation as well as completion of tests of the supersonic highly maneuverable S-37 «Berkut» («Golden Eagle») aircraft with swept forward wings that is a flying laboratory to develop basic technologies of a new generation aircraft. The corporation carries on work on development of sports / piloting aircraft. Family of the Su-26, Su-29 and Su-31 single and two-seaters that were awarded more than 180 medals in international competitions will be extended. Major corporation task is equipping the Russian Air Force with the state-of-art aviation technical applications in order to successfully implement the national military doctrine, enlarge its part of technical applications on the domestic and foreign markets by the means of prospective developments and diversification of proposed products. Major directions of foreign economical activities are as follows:

– export of military and civil applications produced by Company Sukhoi, military purpose works and services;

– export of goods, works and services of double purpose (trainers, equipment);

– export of goods, works and services of civil purpose (aviation applications and equipment for them, consumer goods).

Foreign economical activities of «SUKHOI» company are based on the following:

– advanced scientific/production base enabling development of products competitive in the foreign market in all aspects;

– flexible mobilization system of intellectual and material resource to create samples of aviation technical applications fully compliant with foreign customers requirements;

– active marketing policy and efficient work to fulfill commitments taken.

Organization of research and design work and production management within the corporation considers needs of foreign markets and directs designers and manufacturers towards development of aviation technical applications that fully meet customers requirements. Today, Company Sukhoi proposes the following:

– export of combat, combat / training and training aircraft and organization of their license production abroad;

– deep upgrade of already supplied aircraft to improve their characteristics up to the level of modem requirements;

– restoration and repair of already supplied aircraft that are out of operation;

– sale of licenses and organization of military and civil aircraft license production abroad;

– establishment of regional service centers for operative and intermediate repair and spare parts supplies;

– spare parts supplies.

Integration of the designer and manufacturers of the «Su» type aircraft generally reflects the uniting trend that can be obviously identified recently in the world aviation and space industry that is related to first of all increased competition in the aviation market, to the reduction of military expenses and growth of research/design work costs. Company Sukhoi possesses a significant potential:

– capability of fulfilling foreign partners orders requiring from the technical applications supplier united execution of all commitments on contract;

– capability of providing series plants with new orders by the means of prospective developments based on united resource;

– export of the Su-27, Su-25 aircraft and their modifications;

– production capabilities of series plants;

– SUKHOI Design Bureau and TANTK named after Beriyev scientific / technical potential;

– large fleet of «Su» aircraft being operated abroad that requires technical support and modernization.

Being an integrated structure Company Sukhoi ensures the most effective usage of its export potential that is estimated as $8 billion for 5 years. Company Sukhoi now is a powerful base to form a holding uniting both military and civil aviation sectors around basiс programs.

Thus Company Sukhoi possesses the needed resource to become the main body of the Russian industry consolidation in the XXI century.

Su-22M4

Upgraded supersonic fighter-bomber Su-22M4 is intended to strike ground and sea targets, day and night, under simple and adverse weather conditions, to perform overall reconnaissance and aerial combat with enemy aircraft.

On Customer request, some changes can be made to upgrade program, regarding the composition of the systems to be modernized, selection of type and quantity of imported avionics for Installation, Introduction of stage-by-stage modernization. Aircraft upgrade concepts:

– New avionics installation, replacement of the out-of-date equipment GPS, DMG, radar in pod, MFD, TACAN, IFF, RADIOCOM, solid-state flight data recorder, MK-54 portable system for flight mission data preparation and entry.

– Navigation accuracy and SOF improvement.

– Weapons accuracy improvement.

– Adaptation to Customer operational infrastructure.

– Reduction of aircraft preparation time.

– New weapons employment.

– Corrected bomb KAB-500KR, antis hip missile X-31A.

– Camouflaged and highly armed ground targets destruction.

– Sea targets destruction.

– EW suite improvement.

– Upgraded station of active jammers59 SPS-141MK.

– Additional capabilities to destroy radar with quasicontinuous60 radiation, with high pulse repetition frequency and track-while-scan radar.

– Improvement in maintenance Operation costs decrease.

– Aircraft’s safe life and service life extension.

– Aircraft’s life cycle extension.

Su-33

The Su-33 single seat ship borne fighter featuring ramp-assisted take-off and arrested landing capabilities is designed to defend air carrying groups and other Navy teams from enemy’s air offensive means through destroying manned or unmanned aerial vehicles (including anti-ship missiles, fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft) by means of medium range air-to-air missiles and in close combat.

It is fitted for countering surface targets by all types of unguided munitions (rockets and bombs) when acting in self-sustain operations or as part of a unit in all kinds of weather both over neutral and enemy’s territories. Moreover it is employed for support of operations by other naval aircraft, for engaging antisubmarine and reconnaissance aircraft, early warning and control aircraft, cruise missiles and foe’s unmanned aerial vehicles as well as for reconnaissance purposes and air refueling of same-type ship borne aircraft. Primary features:

– improved thrust/weight ratio and air-frame lifting capabilities which provide a shorter ramp-assisted take-off and arrested landing;

– folding outer wings and empennage to provide storage of the aircraft in under-deck hangars and to minimize the space taken by it on maintenance positions on the deck;

– strengthened landing gear and air-frame to provide landing with high descend velocity without flare out;

– improved corrosion-preventive protection of the airframe;

– high maneuverability arising from application of the modified fly-by-wire control system with additional control channel for canards;

– up-to-date fire control system based on radar and optron61 sighting system featuring broad capabilities as to detection, tracking and engaging air and surface targets;

– modified navigation and radio system;

– modern onboard electronic counter-measures system;

– broad stocks of air-to-air and unguided air-to-surface munitions located on twelve hard points;

– air refueling system and air refueling pod for refueling other aircraft

Su-49

The Su-49 two-seat training aircraft is intended to implement a wide range of tasks of initial and major flight training of military pilot schools students, prepare sports pilots and maintenance of military pilots skills and physical condition.

Customers are offered two versions of the aircraft that differ by the set of avionics. Simplified version is for the initial stage of piloting techniques training with exercising elements of simple, complicated piloting and aerobatics, entering and exiting spin. Next stage of the major training perfects piloting and navigation skills in the day time under simple and complicated weather conditions as well as at night at low and extremely low altitudes under conditions close to the combat ones. Pilots obtain skills of complicated maneuvering on 4th and 5th generation aircraft when operating on ground and aerial targets. This stage implements tasks of perfecting the well-coordinated flight interaction under visibility conditions.

Su-39

The Su-39 sniper aircraft is intended to operate in Air-to-Air and Air-to-Surface modes and to implement the missions, performance of which by other strike tactical purpose platforms is almost impossible.

On Customer request, the aircraft can be equipped with imported avionics. The Su-39 peculiar features Round-the-clock performance at active counteraction of the enemy air defense, under simple and adverse weather conditions; sighting through the on-board optical-television 23-times zoom system or through the radar sighting device:

– detection and destruction of moving targets such as tanks, speed boats or helicopters with 0,9 probability;

– autonomous detection and destruction of warships, from high-speed boats and up to torpedo-boat destroyers;

– destruction of modern air defense platforms in any of their operation modes;

– Self protection against fighters and Air-to-Air close combat;

– High maneuverability at low and medium altitudes;

– Operation from mountains airfields with runway elevation up to 3000 m;

– Almost 100 % protection of pilots and all vital aircraft systems against destruction by 30 mm caliber of cannon armament and its splinters. The Su-39 aircraft provides application of the following «Air-to-Surface» weapons:

– Missiles with laser homing with accuracy 0,5 m at targets up to 10 km away and universal aircraft weapons;

– antitank guided missile «Vihre» (16 pieces);

– antis hip, antiradar and TV-homing missiles;

– Corrected bombs with TV-homing.

«Air-to-Air» weapons: close-in and long-distance missiles with active and semi-active seekers; with IR-guidance seekers. Unguided weapons: bombs, rockets and built-in cannon of 30 mm caliber.

Su-35

The Su-35 single-seat multifunctional super agile fighter is intended to gain air superiority and to implement tasks of combat application on aerial and ground targets during autonomous operation and group actions, round-the-clock under simple and adverse weather conditions.

Application of the thrust vector control integrated into aircraft control system provides decrease of the minimum flight speed and piloting at low speeds (down to near-to-zero ones) without any angle of attack limitation (super agility mode). The Su-35 fighter’s peculiar features are as follows:

– high performance;

– unsurpassed agility;

– multichannel application of weapons on aerial and ground targets;

– high level of protection against jamming;

– ground target’s attack without entry of enemy air defence zone;

– low level flight, fly-over and fly-by of obstacles;

– automated group actions on ground and aerial targets;

– counteraction against adversary EW and optronic systems;

– automation of all flight and combat employment stages

Su-32

The Su-32 two-seat fighter-bomber Is Intended to implement tasks of combat application on aerial ground and sea targets (including small-size and moving ones) during autonomous and group actions, round-the-clock under simple and adverse weather conditions with enemy’s jamming and flight informational counteraction as well as for aerial reconnaissance.

Aircraft weaponry includes a wide range of unguided and precision corrected and guided mends62 with various homing systems (launch range up to 250 km). Integrated airborne avionics of the Su-32 aircraft ensures implementation of combat tasks in the whole spectrum of scope conditions, also at night, with high level of automation. Two-seat side-by-side cockpit of a special design improves crew operating capabilities in extended flights.

Su-З0МК

The Su-З0МК aircraft with canards and thrust vector control (TVC) is a two-seat highly maneuverable fighter intended to gain air superiority, to engage ground and above-water targets using guided and unguided aerial weapons as well as to ensure group actions under different weather conditions.

On Customer request, the aircraft can be equipped with imported avionics. The usage of canards and TVC ensures supermaneuvrabllity of the aircraft at speeds equal to and below zero. The Su-SOMK aircraft peculiar features:

– high performance;

– long-range patrolling, tracking and radar combat loitering;

– application of precision weapons on ground and above-water targets without entering enemy air defence zone;

– high agility;

– extended aerial capabilities;

– counteraction to enemy radio electronic and optronic63 means;

– automated group actions capabilities.

The Su-ЗОМК aircraft provides application of «Air-to-Air» missiles:

– missiles with passive and active radar, TV, laser and telecode homing.

– «Air-to-Surface» guided weapons.

– antiradar missiles, missiles with TV, laser and telecode guidance;

– corrected bombs with TV guidance. The aircraft also uses unguided bombs, cluster bombs, jet rockets and 30mm built-in canon

Be-103 amphibious

For passengers transportations, administrative and liaison duties, small cargos of freight and mail delivery, urgent medical aid, prompt ecological monitoring of water areas, SAR operations on water, patrol missions over woodlands, sea borders and economic zones, aerial photography, tourism.

The Be-103 is a low-wing monoplane, with water-displacing wings fitted with wing extensions. It features an all-moving slab tail and tricycle landing gear with nose undercarriage unit. Its hallmarks are the water-displacing wing with three aquaplaning implements (planning step, starboard and port wing trailing edges) which substantially enhance the aircraft on-the-water stability and seaworthiness. The amphibious Be-103 is intended for autonomous operation in the unmarked areas, in regions that have rivers, lakes, streams and are otherwise inaccessible.

Su-80GP cargo & passenger aircraft

Multifunctional cargo-passenger aircraft for local and regional airlines.

SU-80CP, SU-80P SU-80CP provides transportation of 30 passengers (2+2) or cargo up to 3300 kg. The Leak-proof cargo-passenger cockpit can be easily transferred from passengers variant into cargo and visa versa. In cargo variant the aircraft is equipped with appliances for tying cargo and for mechanization of loading. The transformation is done by 2-3 persons. Boarding and cargo loading is made with a ramp-trap in the back part of fuselage. Integrated on-board complex provides solution of piloting navigation tasks, control system tasks and control of on-board equipment. The piloting, command and control information is shown on LCD displays. The complex enables to use aircraft in any conditions for flights along sky-ways and out both in Russia and abroad.

Aircraft and engines exploitation is carried out in accordance with technical condition which is controlled by built-in on-board equipment. Aircraft can be exploited autonomously during 50 flight hours or 15 days if basing in airports unequipped with on-ground aircraft equipment and radio-technical equipment.

Su-38L

Su-38L light agricultural aircraft intended for dispersion of liquid and dry chemicals during aerial agricultural work.

The Su-38L was designed as a cantilever single-seat monoplane with bottom-positioned wing and with 3-bearing gear with tail wheel. The Su-38L uses the M337C air-cooled engine developed by LOM Prague that it uses automobile petrol and a three-blade prop with variable pitch. Su-38L design provides a number of components considerably increasing pilot’s safety even in emergency situations related to low flight altitude during agricultural work (1 to 15m). Small-drop small-volume dispersion technology is used for cultivation. This technology ensures high quality of work and saves chemicals. Dispersion standard in this case is 3-10 L per ha

Two-seat sport aircraft Su-29

On the customer’s request, a number of the Su-29 aircraft were equipped with Bekker and Bendix-King navigation systems and Garmin GPS.The Su-29 two-seat sports aerobatics aircraft is designed for the initial pilot education, flight training and participation of pilots in aerobatics competitions and air shows, as well as for maintaining flight skills of military and civil pilots. The aircraft is designed on the basis of the Su-26 aircraft and inherited most design and technical features of its predecessor. Due to wide use of composite materials which share up to 60 % of the Su-29 aircraft structure, the empty weight is increased by only 50 kg as compared to the Su-26 aircraft empty weight. When flying with a single pilot, the aircraft performance is practically equal to the Su-26 performance. The Su-29 aircraft series production was initiated in September 1992. The aircraft is a success in the international aircraft market. It is sold to the USA, Great Britain, Australia, South Africa etc.