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The History of English (методичка).doc
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Root declension

masc.

fem. & n

masc.

fem.

sing.

pl.

sing.

pl.

sing.

pl.

sing.

pl.

as

u

man

men

mūs

mӯs

es

a

es

a

mannes

manna

mūse

mūsa

e

um

e

um

men

mannum

mӯs

mūsum

as

u

mann

men

mūs

mӯs

Personal Pronouns in oe

1st p

2d p.

3d p.

msc

3d p.

neut

3d p.

fem

Duel

Pl.

1st p

Pl.

2d p.

Pl.

3d p

N.

G.

D.

A.

ic

mīn

þū

þīn

þē

þē

his

him

hine

hit

his

him

hit

he̅o

hiere

hiere

hi̅e

wit

uncer

unc

unc

ūre

ūs

ūs(ic)

se

e̅ower

e̅ow

e̅ow(ic)

hi̅e, hi̅o, hī, hӯ

hiera, hira, heora, hyra

him, heom

hi̅e, he̅o, hī, hӯ

Demonstrative pronouns in oe


There were two types of demonstrative pronouns: the first with the demonstrative meaning considerably weakened; and the second, with a clear demonstrative meaning.

Weak demonstrative meaning

sing.   

pl.

As the lexical meaning was weakened the grammatical meaning acquired a larger force and eventually the pronoun developed into the definite article: sē þæt se̅o > the

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

N.

þæt

se̅o

þā

G.

þǣs

þǣs

þǣre

þāra

D.

þǣm

þǣm

þǣre

þǣm

Acc.

þone

þæt

þā

þā

Instr.

þӯ

Clear demonstrative meaning

Demonstrative pronouns were frequently used as noun determiners and through agreement with the noun indicated its number, gender and case thus helping to define the forms of the nouns in ambiguous cases: e.g. þæt bān=sing. þā bān= pl.

N.

ðes

ðis

ðe ͞os

ðās

G.

ðisses

ðisses

ðisse

ðissa

D.

ðissum

ðissum

ðise

ðissum

Acc.

ðisne

ðis

ðās

ðās

Instr.

ðys

ðys

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