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The History of English (методичка).doc
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The Second Consonant Shift

The 2nd Consonant Shift states correspondences between Common Germanic and High Germanic consonants.

Com. Germ.

High Germ.

p

pf f

b

p

t

ts s

d

t

k

kh h

g

k

θ

d

English

German.

apple hope

Apfel hoffen

ten eat

zehn essen

do

tun

make

machen

three

drei

Periods in the History of English

Periods

Chronological division

Linguistic division                      

Dates

Historical events

Language situation

Linguistic changes     

phonetic

division

morphological

division

Old

English

5c.–11c.

5 c.

7 c.

Germanic settlement of Britain

beginning of writing

Early OE,

pre-written E

written English

full endings

sunu

full grammatical forms

writan–wrāt–writon–writen

Middle English

11c.–14c

1066

1475

Norman conquest

introduction of printing

Early ME –

dialectical divergence

flourishing literary English (Chaucer)

leveled endings

sune

weakened grammatical morphemes

wrīten–wrot–writen–writen

New English

15c. – …

1475–1660

1660–1800

1880–1945

1945 –…

Early NE–literary Renaissance (Shakespeare)

normalization period

Late English –expansion of English

Present day English

lost endings

sun

lost grammatical morphemes

write–wrote–written

Oe Phonetic Structure

Vowels

Monophthongs

Diphthongs

Short

i e æ a å o u y

ea eo io ie

Long

ī ē ǣ ā ō ū ӯ

e ͞a e ͞o ı ͞o ı ͞e

Consonants

Phone mes

Spel

ling

Comments

Phone mes

Spel ling

Comments

Labial

p

b

m

w

f

v

p

b

m

w

f

f

at the beginning & the end [f]: wif

in the intervocal position [v]: wifes

Dental

t

d

r

l

n

s

z

θ

ð

t

d

r

l

n

s

s

þ, ð

þ, ð

at the beginning & the end [s] sǣ, mūs

in the intervocal position [z] ce ͞osan

at the beginning & the end [θ] þr e ͞o ,se ͞a þ

in the intervocal position [ð] se ͞oþan

Velar

and

palatal

k

h

g

γ

j

c

h

ʒ

ʒ

ʒ

initially before cons. and back vowels; in the middle after ‘n’= ʒleo, ʒod, sinʒan

after back vowels and the sonorants ‘r’ & ‘l’daʒas, sorʒ, swelʒan

in the presence of front vowels – ʒear ,daʒ, ʒiefan

Phonetic changes in OE vowels

Phonetic changes in OE vowels

k’ > ʧ cild > c’ild> child

sc’> ʃ scip > sc’ip > ship

g’ > ʤ brycg > bricg’ > bridge

fricatives

f – v

s – z

θ – ð

New Consonant letters for

(cw) [kw]

Spelling changes in Middle English

New Vowel letters for

Changes in stressed vowels in Middle English (1)

qualitative

rising of new phonemes

ā > ǭ hām >hǭm

ō > ọ̄ tōþ > tọ̄th

ǣ > ę̄ sǣ > sę̄

ē > ẹ̄ mētan > mẹ̄ten

growth of new diphthongs

(i or u as the second element)

1.Vocalization of ʒ [j] & [ɣ]

a) vowel + ʒ[ j] > diphtong (digraph)

æ +ʒ[ j] > ai dæʒ > day

e + ʒ[j] > ei weʒ > wey

b) vowel +ʒ [ɣ] > diphtong (digraph)

a + ʒ[ɣ] > au laʒu > lawe

ā + ʒ[[ɣ] > ou āʒen > ǭwen

2. Vowel + h > diphthong (diagraph)

o+h > [ou](ough) brohte > [brouhtǝ] (broughte)

3. Vowel + w > diphthong (diagraph)

ǭ+w > [ou] (ow) flōwan > [flouǝn] (flowen)

monophthongiztion

e̅a > ę̄ be̅am>[bę̄m] beam

e̅o > ẹ̄ de̅op>[dẹ̄p] deep

ı ͞o & ı ͞e> i̅ li̅ehtan > līghten

io &ie> i nieht > niht; hierde>herd

ea > a earm > arm

eo > e heorte > herte

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